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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: ammonia emissions ; global nitrogen cycle ; nitric oxide ; nitrogen deposition ; nitrogen pollution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Increases and expansion of anthropogenic emissions of both oxidized nitrogen compounds, NOx, and a reduced nitrogen compound, NH3, have driven an increase in nitrogen deposition. We estimate global NOx and NH3 emissions and use a model of the global troposphere, MOGUNTIA, to examine the pre-industrial and contemporary quantities and spatial patterns of wet and dry NOy and NHx deposition. Pre-industrial wet plus dry NOx and NHx deposition was greatest for tropical ecosystems, related to soil emissions, biomass burning and lightning emissions. Contemporary NOy+NHx wet and dry deposition onto Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperate ecosystems averages more than four times that of preindustrial N deposition and far exceeds contemporary tropical N deposition. All temperate and tropical biomes receive more N via deposition today than pre-industrially. Comparison of contemporary wet deposition model estimates to measurements of wet deposition reveal that modeled and measured wet deposition for both NO 3 − and NH 4 + were quite similar over the U.S. Over Western Europe, the model tended to underestimate wet deposition of NO 3 − and NH 4 + but bulk deposition measurements were comparable to modeled total deposition. For the U.S. and Western Europe, we also estimated N emission and deposition budgets. In the U.S., estimated emissions exceed interpolated total deposition by 3-6 Tg N, suggesting that substantial N is transported offshore and/or the remote and rural location of the sites may fail to capture the deposition of urban emissions. In Europe, by contrast, interpolated total N deposition balances estimated emissions within the uncertainty of each.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: ammonia emissions ; global nitrogen cycle ; nitric oxide ; nitrogen deposition ; nitrogen pollution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Increases and expansion of anthropogenic emissions of both oxidized nitrogen compounds, NOx, and a reduced nitrogen compound, NH3, have driven an increase in nitrogen deposition. We estimate global NOx and NH3 emissions and use a model of the global troposphere, MOGUNTIA, to examine the pre-industrial and contemporary quantities and spatial patterns of wet and dry NOy and NHx deposition. Pre-industrial wet plus dry NOx and NHx deposition was greatest for tropical ecosystems, related to soil emissions, biomass burning and lightning emissions. Contemporary NOy + NHx wet and dry deposition onto Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperate ecosystems averages more than four times that of pre-industrial N deposition and far exceeds contemporary tropical N deposition. All temperate and tropical biomes receive more N via deposition today than pre-industrially. Comparison of contemporary wet deposition model estimates to measurements of wet deposition reveal that modeled and measured wet deposition for both NO− 3 and NH+ 4 were quite similar over the U.S. Over Western Europe, the model tended to underestimate wet deposition of NO− 3 and NH+ 4 but bulk deposition measurements were comparable to modeled total deposition. For the U.S. and Western Europe, we also estimated N emission and deposition budgets. In the U.S., estimated emissions exceed interpolated total deposition by 3--6 Tg N, suggesting that substantial N is transported offshore and/or the remote and rural location of the sites may fail to capture the deposition of urban emissions. In Europe, by contrast, interpolated total N deposition balances estimated emissions within the uncertainty of each.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Global model ; emission inventory ; ammonia ; ammonium ; nitrous oxide ; acidity ; canopy compensation point
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Using a three-dimensional (3-D) transport model of the troposphere, we calculated the global distributions of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH 4 + ), taking into account removal of NH3 on acidic aerosols, in liquid water clouds and by reaction with OH. Our estimated global 10°×10° NH3 emission inventory of 45 Tg N-NH3 yr− provides a reasonable agreement between calculated wet NH 4 + deposition and measurements and of measured and modeled NH 4 + in aerosols, although in Africa and Asia especially discrepancies exist. NH3 emissions from natural continental ecosystems were calculated applying a canopy compensation point and oceanic NH3 emissions were related to those of DMS (dimethylsulfide). In many regions of the earth, the pH found in rain and cloud water can be attributed to acidity derived from NO, SO2 and DMS emissions and alkalinity from NH3. In the remote lower troposphere, sulfate aerosols are calculated to be almost neutralized to ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4, whereas in the middle and upper troposphere, according to our calculations, the aerosol should be more acidic, as a result of the oxidation of DMS and SO2 throughout the troposphere and removal of NH3 on acidic aerosols at lower heights. Although the removal of NH3 by reaction with the OH radical is relatively slow, the intermediate NH2 radical can provide a substantial annual N2O source of 0.9 −0.4 +0.9 Tg, thus contributing byca. 5% to estimated global N2O production. The oxidation by OH of NH3 from anthropogenic sources accounts for 10% of the estimated total anthropogenic sources of N2O. This source was not accounted for in previous studies, and is mainly located in the tropics, which have high NH3 and OH concentrations. Biomass burning plumes, containing high NO x and NH3 concentrations provide favourable conditions for gas phase N2O production. This source is probably underestimated in this model study, due to the coarse resolution of the 3-D model, and the rather low biomass burning NH3 and NO x emissions adopted. The estimate depends heavily on poorly known concentrations of NH3 (and NO x ) in the tropics, and uncertainties in the rate constants of the reactions NH2 + NO2 → N2O + H2O (R4), and NH2 + O3 → NH2O + O2 (R7).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: Anthropogenically induced increases in nitrogen deposition to the ocean can stimulate marine productivity and oceanic emission of nitrous oxide. We present the first global ocean model assessment of the impact on marine N2O of increases in nitrogen deposition from the preindustrial era to the present. We find significant regional increases in marine N2O production downwind of continental outflow, in coastal and inland seas (15–30%),and nitrogen limited regions of the North Atlantic and North Pacific (5–20%). The largest changes occur in the northern Indian Ocean (up to 50%) resulting from a combination of high deposition fluxes and enhanced N2O production pathways in local hypoxic zones. Oceanic regions relatively unaffected by anthropogenic nitrogen deposition indicate much smaller changes (〈2%). The estimated change in oceanic N2O source on a global scale is modest (0.08–0.34 Tg N yr-1, ~3–4% of the total ocean source), and consistent with the estimated impact on global export production (~4%).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: The global tropospheric budget of gaseous and particulate non-methane organic matter (OM) is re-examined to provide a holistic view of the role that OM plays in transporting the essential nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus to the ocean. A global 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model was used to construct the first global picture of atmospheric transport and deposition of the organic nitrogen (ON) and organic phosphorus (OP) that are associated with OM, focusing on the soluble fractions of these nutrients. Model simulations agree with observations within an order of magnitude. Depending on location, the observed water soluble ON fraction ranges from similar to 3% to 90% (median of similar to 35%) of total soluble N in rainwater; soluble OP ranges from similar to 20-83% (median of similar to 35%) of total soluble phosphorus. The simulations suggest that the global ON cycle has a strong anthropogenic component with similar to 45% of the overall atmospheric source (primary and secondary) associated with anthropogenic activities. In contrast, only 10% of atmospheric OP is emitted from human activities. The model-derived present-day soluble ON and OP deposition to the global ocean is estimated to be similar to 16 Tg-N/yr and similar to 0.35 Tg-P/yr respectively with an order of magnitude uncertainty. Of these amounts similar to 40% and similar to 6%, respectively, are associated with anthropogenic activities, and 33% and 90% are recycled oceanic materials. Therefore, anthropogenic emissions are having a greater impact on the ON cycle than the OP cycle; consequently increasing emissions may increase P-limitation in the oligotrophic regions of the world's ocean that rely on atmospheric deposition as an important nutrient source.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-06-05
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We have compared the 14-year record of satellite derived tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOC) from the NIMBUS-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) to TTOC calculated by a chemistry-transport model (CTM). An objective measure of error, based on the zonal distribution of TTOC in the tropics, is applied to perform this comparison systematically. In addition, the sensitivity of the model to several key processes in the tropics is quantified to select directions for future improvements. The comparisons indicate a widespread, systematic (20%) discrepancy over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, which maximizes during austral Spring. Although independent evidence from ozonesondes shows that some of the disagreement is due to satellite over-estimate of TTOC, the Atlantic mismatch is largely due to a misrepresentation of seasonally recurring processes in the model. Only minor differences between the model and observations over the Pacific occur, mostly due to interannual variability not captured by the model. Although chemical processes determine the TTOC extent, dynamical processes dominate the TTOC distribution, as the use of actual meteorology pertaining to the year of observations always leads to a better agreement with TTOC observations than using a random year or a climatology. The modeled TTOC is remarkably insensitive to many model parameters due to efficient feedbacks in the ozone budget. Nevertheless, the simulations would profit from an improved biomass burning calendar, as well as from an increase in NOX abundances in free tropospheric biomass burning plumes. The model showed the largest response to lightning NOX emissions, but systematic improvements could not be found. The use of multi-year satellite derived tropospheric data to systematically test and improve a CTM is a promising new addition to existing methods of model validation, and is a first step to integrating tropospheric satellite observations into global ozone modeling studies. Conversely,the CTM may suggest improvements to evolving satellite retrievals for tropospheric ozone.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence regional and global climate and air quality through changes in tropospheric O3 and oxidants, which also influence methane (CH4) and sulfate aerosols (SO4 (sup 2-)). We examine changes in the tropospheric composition of O3, CH4, SO4 (sup 2-) and global net radiative forcing (RF) for 20% reductions in global CH4 burden and in anthropogenic O3 precursor emissions (NOx, NMVOC, and CO) from four regions (East Asia, Europe and Northern Africa, North America, and South Asia) using the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, assessing uncertainty (mean plus or minus 1 standard deviation) across multiple CTMs. We evaluate steady state O3 responses, including long-term feedbacks via CH4. With a radiative transfer model that includes greenhouse gases and the aerosol direct effect, we find that regional NOx reductions produce global, annually averaged positive net RFs (0.2 plus or minus 0.6 to 1.7 2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg N yr(sup -1), with some variation among models. Negative net RFs result from reductions in global CH4 (-162.6 plus or minus 2 mWm(sup -2) for a change from 1760 to 1408 ppbv CH4) and regional NMVOC (-0.4 plus or minus 0.2 to 0.7 plus or minus 0.2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg C yr(sup -1) and CO emissions (-0.13 plus or minus 0.02 to -0.15 plus or minus 0.02 mWm(sup-2)/Tg CO yr(sup-1). Including the effect of O3 on CO2 uptake by vegetation likely makes these net RFs more negative by -1.9 to- 5.2 mWm(sup -2)/Tg N yr(sup -1), -0.2 to -0.7 mWm(sup -2)/Tg C yr(sup -1), and -0.02 to -0.05 mWm(sup -2)/ Tg CO yr(sup -1). Net RF impacts reflect the distribution of concentration changes, where RF is affected locally by changes in SO4 (sup -2), regionally to hemispherically by O3, and globally by CH4. Global annual average SO4 2 responses to oxidant changes range from 0.4 plus or minus 2.6 to -1.9 plus or minus 1.3 Gg for NOx reductions, 0.1 plus or minus 1.2 to -0.9 plus or minus 0.8 Gg for NMVOC reductions, and -0.09 plus or minus 0.5 to -0.9 plus or minus 0.8 Gg for CO reductions, suggesting additional research is needed. The 100-year global warming potentials (GWP(sub 100)) are calculated for the global CH4 reduction (20.9 plus or minus 3.7 without stratospheric O3 or water vapor, 24.2 plus or minus 4.2 including those components), and for the regional NOx, NMVOC, and CO reductions (18.7 plus or minus 25.9 to 1.9 plus or minus 8.7 for NOx, 4.8 plus or minus 1.7 to 8.3 plus or minus 1.9 for NMVOC, and 1.5 plus or minus 0.4 to 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 for CO). Variation in GWP(sub 100) for NOx, NMVOC, and CO suggests that regionally specific GWPs may be necessary and could support the inclusion of O3 precursors in future policies that address air quality and climate change simultaneously. Both global net RF and GWP100 are more sensitive to NOx and NMVOC reductions from South Asia than the other three regions.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8845 , Journal of Geophysical Research; 117; D7; D07306
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions to the atmosphere have increased significantly the deposition of nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) to the surface waters of the open ocean, with potential impacts on marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of the impacts of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce and validate models of nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. In this work, approx. 2900 observations of aerosol NO3- and NH4+ concentrations, acquired from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995-2012, are used to assess the performance of modeled N concentration and deposition fields over the remote ocean. Three ocean regions (the eastern tropical North Atlantic, the northern Indian Ocean and northwest Pacific) were selected, in which the density and distribution of observational data were considered sufficient to provide effective comparison to model products. All of these study regions are affected by transport and deposition of mineral dust, which alters the deposition of N, due to uptake of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on mineral surfaces. Assessment of the impacts of atmospheric N deposition on the ocean requires atmospheric chemical transport models to report deposition fluxes, however these fluxes cannot be measured over the ocean. Modelling studies such as the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), which only report deposition flux are therefore very difficult to validate for dry deposition. Here the available observational data were averaged over a 5deg x 5deg grid and compared to ACCMIP dry deposition fluxes (ModDep) of oxidised N (NOy) and reduced N (NHx) and to the following parameters from the TM4-ECPL (TM4) model: ModDep for NOy, NHx and particulate NO3- and NH4+, and surface-level particulate NO3- and NH4+ concentrations. As a model ensemble, ACCMIP can be expected to be more robust than TM4, while TM4 gives access to speciated parameters (NO3- and NH4+) that are more relevant to the observed parameters and which are not available in ACCMIP. Dry deposition fluxes (CalDep) were calculated from the observed concentrations using estimates of dry deposition velocities. Model observation ratios, weighted by grid-cell area and numbers of observations, (RA,n) were used to assess the performance of the models. Comparison in the three study regions suggests that TM4 over-estimates NO3- concentrations (RA,n = 1.4-2.9) and under-estimates NH4+ concentrations (RA,n = 0.5- 0.7), with spatial distributions in the tropical Atlantic and northern Indian Ocean not being reproduced by the model. In the case of NH4+ in the Indian Ocean, this discrepancy was probably due to seasonal biases in the sampling. Similar patterns were observed in the various comparisons of CalDep to ModDep (RA,n = 0.6- 2.6 for NO3-, 0.6-3.1 for NH4+). Values of RA,n for NHx CalDep - ModDep comparisons were approximately double the corresponding values for NH4+ CalDep - ModDep comparisons due to the significant fraction of gas- phase NH3 deposition incorporated in the TM4 and ACCMIP NHx model products. All of the comparisons suffered due to the scarcity of observational data and the large uncertainty in dry deposition velocities used to derive deposition fluxes from concentrations. (abstract is longer than the allotted space).
    Keywords: Geosciences (General)
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN45188 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7316) (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 17; 13; 8189-8210
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 (HTAP2) exercise, a range of global atmospheric general circulation and chemical transport models performed coordinated perturbation experiments with 20% reductions in emissions of anthropogenic aerosols, or aerosol precursors, in a number of source regions. Here, we compare the resulting changes in the atmospheric load and vertically resolved profiles of black carbon (BC), organic aerosols (OA) and sulfate (SO4/ from 10 models that include treatment of aerosols. We use a set of temporally, horizontally and vertically resolved profiles of aerosol forcing efficiency (AFE) to estimate the impact of emission changes in six major source regions on global radiative forcing (RF) pertaining to the direct aerosol effect, finding values between. 51.9 and 210.8mW/sq m/Tg for BC, between -2.4 and -17.9mW/sq m/Tg for OA and between -3.6 and -10.3W/sq m/Tg for SO4. In most cases, the local influence dominates, but results show that mitigations in south and east Asia have substantial impacts on the radiative budget in all investigated receptor regions, especially for BC. In Russia and the Middle East, more than 80 % of the forcing for BC and OA is due to extra-regional emission reductions. Similarly, for North America, BC emissions control in east Asia is found to be more important than domestic mitigations, which is consistent with previous findings. Comparing fully resolved RF calculations to RF estimates based on vertically averaged AFE profiles allows us to quantify the importance of vertical resolution to RF estimates. We find that locally in the source regions, a 20% emission reduction strengthens the radiative forcing associated with SO4 by 25% when including the vertical dimension, as the AFE for SO4 is strongest near the surface. Conversely, the local RF from BC weakens by 37% since BC AFE is low close to the ground. The fraction of BC direct effect forcing attributable to intercontinental transport, on the other hand, is enhanced by one-third when accounting for the vertical aspect, because long-range transport primarily leads to aerosol changes at high altitudes, where the BC AFE is strong. While the surface temperature response may vary with the altitude of aerosol change, the analysis in the present study is not extended to estimates of temperature or precipitation changes.
    Keywords: Geosciences (General); Environment Pollution
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41573 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7324); 16; 21; 13579-13599
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