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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 173 (1976), S. 483-493 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Pars distalis ; Red-spotted newt ; Thyrotropic cells ; Thyroidectomy cells ; Thyrotropin releasing hormone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Although the pars distalis of the red-spotted newt has previously undergone extensive cytological examination, the identity of its thyrotropic cells has remained uncertain. From the present ultrastructural study, cells of type 3 (Masur, 1969) containing granules 150–180 nm in diameter are concluded to be the thyrotropes. Such cells were found to be present in the regions of the pars distalis where thyroidectomy cells arise after ablation of the thyroid gland. Cells of type 3 are probably identical with a population of cells containing granules which stain with silver methenamine indicating the presence of a glycoprotein such as thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyroidectomy cells containing a few residual granules 150–180 nm in diameter were occasionally found in partes distales from newts killed 3 or 7 days after ablation of the thyroid gland, and were abundant in pituitaries 21 days after thyroidectomy. Only cells of type 3 responded (by vacuolation of granules) when animals were immersed in water containing 10 μg/l of thyroxine. No cells of the pars distalis showed cytological change after administration of synthetic thyrotropic releasing hormone (TRH) giving additional support to the view that this hormone has no stimulatory role in amphibians.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 132 (1970), S. 397-423 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sperm from the male spermatophore in the red spotted newt are held indefinitely in convoluted, tubular outpocketings of the female cloaca called, collectively, a spermatheca. Each outpocketing, or tubule, when studied in thin section with the electron microscope showed a wall consisting of two components, a continuous inner or lining layer of epithelial cells and an outer covering layer of myoepithelial cells.The myoepithelial layer is penetrated by occasional openings or intercellular spaces through which the epithelial cells make contact with a basal lamina that bounds the tubule. The myoepithelial cells resemble smooth muscle cells displaying filaments (mean diameter = 75 Å ± 1 S.E.) that are probably constituted of actin, dense bodies and prominent caveolae. They are sparsely supplied with mitochondria, ribosomes, Golgi complexes and, sometimes, particles of glycogen. Typically the epithelial cells contain secretion granules, numerous mitochondria and ribosomes. They contain some fibers similar to those of the myoepithelial cells but with mean diameters that are significantly larger (90 Å ± 2 S.E.). Occasional profiles of Golgi complexes are evident and glycogen particles are abundant throughout the cytosomes of spermathecal tubules from adult animals bearing sperm. Secretory granules and glycogen are extremely rare or lacking in the spermathecae of efts that have not attained sexual maturity and in animals with ablated or involuted ovaries. In such animals large electron-lucid vesicles appear at or near luminal borders. Glycogen is absent and secretory granules show signs of dissolution in the spermathecal cells of gravid females induced to ovulate by the injection of chorionic gonadotropin. It is indicated that the epithelial cells provide nourishment for the sperm while they are retained within the spermathecal tubules, that the discharge of sperm from the spermatheca is facilitated by the contraction of the myoepithelial cells and that gonadal hormones act in the regulation of spermathecal function.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mucous gland of the red-spotted newt, Notophthalamus viridescens viridescens, Rafinesque was examined by histochemical and ultrastructural techniques and its cytological responses to various hormonal conditions were studied. Its secretory epithelial cells produce and release in merocrine fashion a neutral, unsulphated mucosubstance. The secretory epithelium is bounded peripherally by a thin, but apparent non-functional, myo-epithelium. The duct of this mucous gland consists of a single keratinized tubular cell that extends from the neck region of the gland to the surface of the epidermis.Mucous secretion is absent or greatly reduced on the skins of newts maintained under laboratory conditions for a few weeks but reappears after injection of ovine prolactin. Mucous glands in laboratory conditioned animals show a 4-fold increase in volume brought about by the engorgement of their epithelial cells with secretory granules. Ovine prolactin reduces the volume of the glands to unconditioned levels with a corresponding reduction in granular content, suggesting that prolactin functions in the release of the granules. This view is reinforced by the findings that autotransplantation of the pituitary gland prevents the conditioning effect and that glandular volume increases in auto-transplanted animals given ergocornine. Granular accumulation begins also in hypophysectomized newts but ceases after a week, indicating the need for some hypophyseal factor in the synthesis as well as the release of the granules. Ovine prolactin restores mucous glands of hypophysectomized newts to the unconditioned state. Contrary to earlier findings, ovine prolactin induces a reduction in the volume of the mucous gland in thyroidectomized newts.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 190 (1986), S. 259-270 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The transport of sperm in the cloaca and adjacent regions of the female red-spotted newt was examined. It was found that within 1 min after sperm were introduced into the vent, they progressed in a random pattern past the apertures of the spermatheca (the gladular, sperm storage organ that opens from the anterior roof of the cloaca) forward to the anterior end of the cloaca and on into the posterior regions of the hindgut and bladder. Sperm did not enter the dorsal recess of the cloaca into which the oviducts and ureters open. After 1 day, few sperm remained within the cloaca lumen. Sperm were not transported into the cloacae of artifically inseminated, anesthetized females without prior administration of norepinephrine to their cloacal mounds. Treatment of the cloacal mounds of naturally inseminated females with an antagonist of neuromuscular transmission (lidocaine) decreased the numbers of sperm in the anterior cloaca relative to those of saline-injected control specimens. Neither dead newt sperm nor live rabbit sperm entered the spermatheca. Rabbit sperm, however, entered the oviduct. It is argued that passive and active mechanisms of sperm transport work in concert. Contractions of smooth muscle, which may be initiated during courtship, probably serve to draw sperm passively into the cloaca and up to and beyond the apertures of spermathecal tubules, but sperm, once in the vicinity of those apertures, probably swim actively into them.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Philadelphia : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0095-9898
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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