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  • 1
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), Poverty Reduction, Equity and Growth Network (PEGNet)
    Publication Date: 2017-02-21
    Description: The year 2015 is important for sustainable development: the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have expired and have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September, and from November 30th to December 11th, the 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21/CMP11) will be held. The COP21/CMP11 aims to reach a universal, legally binding agreement to combat climate change and boost the transition towards resilient, low-carbon societies and economies. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions to limit global warming (mitigation) and helping societies adapt to existing climate change are seen as measures the agreement should equally focus on. The group that is likely to suffer most from climate change is poor rural households in developing countries who mainly rely on small-scale agriculture for their livelihood. In large parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, the two regions with the highest incidence of undernutrition, the MDG of cutting hunger by half has not been met (United Nations 2014). Reaching the still more ambitious SDG 2 (end hunger until 2030, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture) appears to be a daunting task even in the absence of climate change. By lowering agricultural yields in some regions, climate change adds to the challenge. This policy brief therefore argues for a particular focus on agricultural production and food security in the current COP21 to help the largest possible number of people satisfy the most basic need of being well nourished.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: The contribution of biofuels to save greenhouse gas emissions has been challenged over the last years. A still unresolved question is how to quantify emissions from indirect land use change (iLUC). In this paper we review approaches to quantify iLUC-emissions. We conclude that economic simulation models have fewer drawbacks compared to two other approaches. We find that economic simulation models contain a high level of uncertainty with respect to key model parameters. Further, we conclude that it is inappropriate to calculate crop-specific iLUC-emissions and to include them into binding regulation. We argue that modelling results, particularly crop-specific ones, should not be used for policy decisions.
    Keywords: C61 ; Q16 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; CGE Modeling ; indirect land use change ; biofuels ; greenhouse gas emissions
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: The Renewable Energy Source Act (EEG) promotes German biogas production in order to substitute fossil fuels, protect the environment, and prevent climate change. As a consequence, green maize production has increased significantly over the last years, causing negative environmental effects on soil, water and biodiversity. In this paper we quantitatively analyse the EEG-reform in 2012 by applying the simulation tool ReSI-M (Regionalised Location Information System - Maize). Comparing the EEG 2012 with a former version of the legislation, results imply that the reform contributes to an expansion of biogas electricity generation compared to former versions, and thus to substitution of fossil fuels. Furthermore, given a restriction in the share of green maize input, its production is reduced and the crop-mix is diversified. However, since maize provides the highest energy output per area, total land requirement for biogas production increases. An alternative analysis shows that an EEG with tariffs independent from plant-types would provide the highest subsidy-efficiency, but slightly lower land efficiency compared to the EEG 2012.
    Keywords: C61 ; Q16 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; bioenergy ; biogas ; land use ; policy analysis ; simulation model ; Förderung regenerativer Energien ; Bioenergie ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Maisanbau ; Landwirtschaftliche Bodennutzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Land use and land use change are determined as much by economic and institutional drivers as they depend on bio-physical conditions. Future pathways of socio-economic and environmental systems can only be assessed with scenarios which describe possible future paths of development. For this numeric models are one important tool. To capture the complex interactions between the development of regionally differentiated economic drivers, computable general equilibrium (CGE) models can be used. We discuss in a transparent way the inclusion of land and the representation of the complex agricultural production activities into DART-BIO, a CGE model. Implementing a scenario of changes in the preferences for meat and dairy products which is currently taking place in Asia, we find that these preference changes have only minor impacts on global agricultural prices while affecting regional production and trade. Results strongly depend on key parameter settings and highlight the importance of interlinkages between biofuel and livestock production.
    Keywords: C61 ; Q16 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; CGE Model ; land use ; biofuels ; simulation model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: The Renewable Energy Source Act (EEG) promotes German biogas production in order to substitute fossil fuels, protect the environment, and prevent climate change. As a consequence, green maize production has increased significantly over the last years, causing negative environmental effects on soil, water and biodiversity. In this paper we quantitatively analyse the EEG-reform in 2012 by applying the simulation tool ReSI-M (Regionalised Location Information System - Maize). Comparing the EEG 2012 with a former version of the legislation, results imply that the reform contributes to an expansion of biogas electricity generation compared to former versions, and thus to substitution of fossil fuels. Furthermore, given a restriction in the share of green maize input, its production is reduced and the crop-mix is diversified. However, since maize provides the highest energy output per area, total land requirement for biogas production increases. An alternative analysis shows that an EEG with tariffs independent from plant-types would provide the highest subsidy-efficiency, but slightly lower land efficiency compared to the EEG 2012.
    Keywords: C61 ; Q16 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; bioenergy ; biogas ; land use ; policy analysis ; simulation model ; Förderung erneuerbarer Energien ; Bioenergie ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Maisanbau ; Agrarboden ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: The production of bioenergy is considered to be a promising energy source for a sustainable energy mix and it is politically promoted in many countries. With the exception of Brazilian ethanol, bioenergy not competitive to fossil energy sources, and therefore needs to be subsidised. Several types of bioenergy are based on bulky raw biomass with high per unit transport costs, importantly impacting on the plant's production costs and profitability. In addition, considerable quantities of digestates are released, causing disposal costs. Various studies in the past aimed primarily at analysing transport costs of inputs. In this paper we focus on disposal costs of fermentation digestates from biogas production in Germany and analyse different processing techniques and their impact on profitability for three plant size in three case study areas. Our results show that especially in regions with only a small amount of agricultural land and a large heterogeneity in its agricultural area, processing of digestates increases the profitability of biogas production. The same accounts for regions with high livestock density, where the area needed for disposal is comparatively large. The cost efficiency is enforced by a high share of animal excrements on input and the biogas plant size.
    Keywords: C69 ; Q16 ; Q55 ; ddc:330 ; Transport costs ; biogas profitability ; digestates processing ; choice of location
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-07-20
    Description: Biogasproduktion wird in Deutschland mit dem Ziel des Klima- und Umweltschutzes sowie der Substitution fossiler Energieträger durch das Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) gefördert. Dieser Beitrag analysiert quantitativ durch Kopplung eines Agrarsektor- und eines Standortmodells die Novellierung des EEGs in 2008. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Novellierung durch einen verstärkten Ausbau der Energieerzeugung durch Biogas zur weiteren Substitution fossiler Energieträger beiträgt, allerdings auch zu höheren Kosten pro erzeugter Einheit Strom. Die Flächeneffizienz sinkt, während Transportemissionen ansteigen. Eine alternativ untersuchte Ausgestaltung einer anlageunabhängigen Vergütung im EEG zeigt die höchste Subventionseffizienz, bei allerdings niedrigerer Flächeneffizienz und höheren Transportemissionen im Vergleich zum EEG vor der Novellierung.
    Description: The Renewable-Energy-Source-Act (EEG) promotes German biogas production in order to substitute fossil fuels, protect the environment and prevent climate change. In this paper we quantitatively analyse the EEG-reform in 2008. Results imply that the reform contributes to an expansion of biogas electricity generation and thus to substitution of fossil fuels. However, subsidies, land and transport emissions per unit of electricity produced increase. An alternative analysis shows that an EEG with tariffs independent from plant-types would provide the highest subsidy-efficiency, lower land requirements and higher transport emissions compared to EEG before its reformation.
    Keywords: C02 ; C61 ; Q15 ; Q42 ; Q48 ; ddc:330 ; Biogas ; land use ; renewable energy policy ; coupled models ; EEG ; Bioenergie ; Förderung regenerativer Energien ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Landwirtschaftliche Bodennutzung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: The contribution of biofuels to save greenhouse gas emissions has been challenged over the last years. A still unresolved question is how to quantify emissions from indirect land use change (iLUC). In this article we discuss the implications of uncertainties on the current policy proposals in the European Union (EU). We conclude that it is inappropriate to calculate crop-specific iLUC-emissions and to include them into binding regulation. We argue that modelling results, particularly crop-specific ones, should not be used for policy decisions. Our discussion of the current EU policy proposal suggests that a combination of an increase in the minimum emissions savings threshold and limits to biofuel production are a safe way to ensure with a high degree of certainty a climate mitigation impact of biofuels.
    Keywords: Q42 ; Q24 ; Q48 ; Q16 ; ddc:330 ; biofuel policy ; indirect land use change ; European Union ; policy proposals
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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