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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-86/6
    In: CRREL Report, 86-6
    Description / Table of Contents: Short-pulse radar profiles and waveform traces were recorded over natural, freshwater ice sheets and an artificially made, 1.6-m-diameter column of brash ice. The purpose was to study the feasibility of this type of radar to detect ice thickness, determine ice properties and distinguish ice forms. The radar utilized two antennas: one with a spectrum centered near 900 MHz and a second more powerful one near 700 MHz. Distinct top and bottom reflections from several ice sheets were produced by both antennas, but the value of dielectric permittivity calculated from the time of delay of the reflections varied between sheets as one ice sheet was ready to candle and contained free water. The brash ice distorted signals and allowed no discernible bottom return. The lower frequency antenna also gave returns from the lake bottom (separated from the ice bottom by about 1 m of water), which could allow ice thickness to be determined indirectly. The report concludes that these antennas can be used to determine sheet ice thickness and to supply information to help in the detection of brash ice. The water content of an ice sheet may also be estimated if independent studies show a correlation between dielectric permittivity and free water content.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 15 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 86-6
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Materials and methods Sites and site preparation Results and discussion Lake Morey Post Pond Conclusions and recommendations Literature cited
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-201-85/19
    In: CRREL Report, 85-19
    Description / Table of Contents: Ground-probing radar can be an effective tool for exploring the top 10 to 20 m of ground, especially in cold regions where the freezing of water decreases signal absorption. However, the large electrical variability of the surface, combined with the short wavelengths used, can often cause severe ground clutter that can mask a desired, deeper return. In this study a model facility was constructed consisting of a metallic reflector covered by sand. Troughs of saturated sand were emplaced at the surface to vary surface electrical properties and to act as a noise source to interfere with the bottom reflections. Antenna polarization and height, and signal stacking in both static (antennas stationary) and dynamic (antennas moving) modes were then investigated as methods for reducing the surface clutter. Polarization parallel to the profile direction (perpendicular to the troughs' axes) gave profiles superior to the perpendicular case because of the directional sensitivity of the antenna radiation. Dynamic stacking greatly improved the signal-to-noise ratio because noise sources were averaged as the antennas moved, while the desired reflector, buried at constant depth, was enhanced. Raising the antennas above the surface also reduced noise because the surface area over which reflections were integrated increased. All three noise reduction techniques could be effective in surveys for reflectors at nearly constant depth such as groundwater tables or ice/water interfaces if the lateral variation in undesired ground propertiesis sufficiently random.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 23 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 85-19
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Objective and procedures Materials and methods Subsurface radar Model facility Results Isolated disturbances-surface and raised analog profiles Multiple disturbances Discussion and conclusions Literature cited
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  • 3
    Call number: ZSP-201-76/37
    In: CRREL Report, 76-37
    Description / Table of Contents: Geophysical studies were conducted during September and October of 1975 in northern Maine to locate rock types suitable for construction purposes for the proposed Dickey-Lincoln School Dam Project. Simultaneous airborne magnetometer and VLF electrical resistivity surveys were performed over an area of approximately 920 km2 surrounding the confluence of the St. John and Allagash rivers. The resulting data were used to construct contour maps of apparent resistivity and of total magnetic intensity above the earth's background magnetic field. During the same time period, ground and multi-elevation surveys were performed over a special test sector of known geology. The ground and airborne study in the test sector aided in interpretation of the data by revealing a strong correlation between igneous geology, resistivity, and magnetic intensity. Lack of a similar correlation between resistivity and magnetic data in the remainder of the survey area suggested an absence of additional areas of igneous rocks. The multi-elevation survey of the test area indicated that changes in flight altitude, necessitated by the topographic relief encountered, would not seriously affect the regional resistivity patterns. Although there was no strong evidence of igneous rocks outside the test sector, suitable rock types may exist within the Dss geologic unit (cyclically bedded gray slate and sandstone) in the central part of the main survey area, where most of the high resistivity contours occur.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 24 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 76-37
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Measurement techniques employed Ground Airborne Magnetometer survey Results Ground control study VLF survey Bedrock geology and resistivity Aeromagnetic survey results Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A. Theory of electromagnetic resistivity surveying Appendix B. Magnetic surveying
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/15
    In: CRREL Report, 79-15
    Description / Table of Contents: This report discusses the application of several modern geophysical techniques to groundwater exploration in areas in permafrost. These methods utilize the principles of magnetic induction and radiowave surface impedance in the 10- to 400-kHz band, the techniques of impulse and side-looking radar in the 50- to 10,000-MHz band, and also some optical techniques using imagery obtained from a satellite. Low frequency case studies demonstrate the use of the techniques for detecting free water under an ice cover in shallow, almost completely frozen lake basins, and thaw zones within lake beds, stream channels, and in permafrost in general. The radar studies demonstrate the use of these techniques for determining depth of free water and ice cover thickness on lakes and rivers
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 30 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-15
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Part I. Low frequency resistivity methods Resistivity of earth materials Theory and description of techniques Surface impedance technique Airborne radiowave technique Magnetic induction technique Case studies Location of thaw zones beneath lakes and rivers Location of permeable materials in unfrozen ground Delineating permafrost boundaries Part II. High frequency dielectric methods Dielectric properties of earth materials Theory and description of equIpment Profiling radar Imaging radar Case studies Radar profile of a river channel Impulse radar profile of a freshwater lake SLAR imagery of Arctic lakes Literature cited Appendix A: Satellite imagery for subsurface water exploration
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  • 5
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/23
    In: CRREL Report, 79-23
    Description / Table of Contents: The performance of surface impedance and magnetic induction electromagnetic subsurface exploration techniques was studied seasonally at various sites in Alaska where permafrost and massive ground ice occurred. The surface impedance method, which uses radiowaves in the LF and VLF bands, and the magnetic induction method, which uses low-frequency magnetic induction fields, distinguish subsurface materials by the electrical resistivity of the materials. The methods used have greatest sensitivity within about 20 m of the surface and are, therefore, most applicable for shallow subsurface investigations. The selection of study sites was based on anticipated contrasts in electrical resistivity between ground ice and adjacent earth materials. A magnetic induction instrument, using a separation of 3.66-m between the transmitter and receiver antennas, in general was able to detect near-surface zones of massive ice and to provide data regarding permafrost distribution in both the Fairbanks and Prudhoe Bay areas. At this antenna separation, the depth of magnetic field penetration was sufficient to include mainly the zone containing maximum contrasts in resistivity between ground ice and other earth materials. In the Fairbanks area, contrasts, in this zone were greatest in late winter when the seasonally thawed surface layer was completely frozen. When thawed, this layer usually becomes more conductive and often masks the deeper resistivity contrasts. In the Prudhoe Bay area, maximum ground resistivity contrasts were detected in late summer when shallow subsurface temperatures had risen sufficiently to permit resistivity contrasts between the massive ice and the ice-rich ground to appear.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 24 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-23
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Obiectives and procedures Ground electrical resistivity in permafrost regions Electromagnetic techniques General Magnetic induction method Surface impedance fradiowave method Direct current method General description of field sites Results Site 1 CRREL permafrost station, Fairbanks, Alaska Site 2 Planned road cut for Steese Highway near Fox, Alaska Site 3 Relic floodplain near Fairbanks, Alaska Site 4 Pingos, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Site 5 Ice wedges, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Comparisons between the surface impedance and magnetic induction methods Conclusions and recommendations Literature cited Appendix A. Discussion of the depth of sensitivity of the magnetic induction method using two- and three-layer apparent resistivity curves
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  • 6
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/43
    In: CRREL Report, 82-43
    Description / Table of Contents: The radar signatures of ice wedges and wedge-like structures have been investigated for a variety of soil conditions. The radar used for this study emitted short sinusoidal pulses of about 10-ns duration with an approximate center frequency of 150 MHz. Most of the ice wedges existed at depths of about 1 m in a variety of silty and sandy soils with both frozen and thawed active layers. The position of the wedges was usually identified from corresponding surface features. An artificial ice wedge in coarse-grained alluvium was also profiled as well as wedge-like structures of fine silt in a coarse-grained glacial outwash. All wedges and wedge-like structures produced a hyperbolic reflection profile except when an active layer of thawed, saturated silt was present which eliminated returns from the wedges. The peaks of the hyper-bolas were sometimes masked by reflections from the permafrost table or other material interfaces, and multiple hyperbolas occurred at some sites. The dielectric constant of the host medium was often calculated from the linear portions of the hyperbolas and the results were verified by laboratory time domain reflectometry measurements per-formed on field samples. In some cases, hyperbolic profiles originated at several meters depth suggesting that deep ice wedges could be detected in areas of cold permafrost.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-43
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Objectives and procedures Equipment used Radar TDR Definitions Massive ice Results Artificial wedge: Norwich, Vermont Ice wedges in sand: Fish Creek, Alaska Ice wedges: Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Ice wedges under thawed fine-grained soils: North Slope, Alaska Wedge-like soil structures: Ft. Greely, Alaska TDR measurements Summary and concluding remarks Literature cited Appendix A: Brief discussion of dispersion
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  • 7
    Call number: ZSP-201-86/11
    In: CRREL Report, 86-11
    Description / Table of Contents: This initial study of the ice-covered Tanana River, near Fairbanks, Alaska, attempted to 1) establish field methods for systematic and repetitive quantitative analyses of an ice-covered river's regime, 2) evaluate the instruments and equipment for sampling, and 3) obtain the initial data of a long-term study of ice cover effects on the morphology, hydraulics and sediment transport of a braided river. A methodology was established, and detailed measurements and samplings, including profiling by geophysical techniques, were conducted along cross sections of the river. A small, portable rotary drill rig equipped with a 356-mm (14-in.) ice auger was used to cut large diameter holes in the ice cover for through-the-ice measurements. Portable heat sources and a heated shelter were required to continuously thaw and dry equipment for the repetitive measurements. Measurements included ice cover thickness, water level, water depth, temperature, flow velocity, suspended load and bed load, frazil ice distribution and bed material composition. Remotely gathered data included apparent resistivity and subsurface radar profiling. The various techniques, sampling gear and problems encountered during use in the subfreezing cold are described in detail in this report.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 49 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 86-11
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Study objectives and field locale Study site Equipment Vehicles Drilling equipment Sampling equipment Geophysical equipment Shelter and icing control Surveying equipment Miscellaneous equipment Field techniques and methodology Logistics Drilling procedures Data collection Geophysical analyses Experiences summary Morphology, transport and hydraulic data Mid-winter physical characteristics Hydraulic characteristics Sediment transport Late winter physical characteristics Seasonal morphology Geophysical data interpretation Spatial morphology Frazil ice characteristics Discussion and conclusions Recommendations Equipment Research Literature cited
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  • 8
    Call number: ZSP-201-94/12
    In: CRREL Report, 94-12
    Description / Table of Contents: Subsurface radar was used to profile ice and snow conditions on the Ross Ice Shelf at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during mid-January 1993. Deconvolution and migration were often used to improve vertical resolution and spatial imaging. Profiles at a pulse center frequency of 400 MHz along the 3.2-km-long Pegasus ice runway show many low-density horizons above 9 m depth that are up to 30 m long. They are associated with air bubbles included during refreezing of meltwater and are interpreted as layers between a few and tens of centimeters thick. There is a strong reflecting horizon at about 9 m depth that is probably from brine intrusion as it is continuous with the intrusion into the snow to the east. Diffraction asymptotes give a dielectric constant near 3.2 for material above the brine level, a value that implies near-solid ice. Profiles at 100 MHz along the road between Pegasus runway and Williams Field in the accumulation zone show snow features such as layer deformation and intrusive brine layers that both abruptly and gradually change in depth. A single profile at a relic solid waste dump at Williams Field detected buried debris and ice within the upper 7 m. A survey of a suspected fuel spill shows some local disturbances near the center, but no excavation was done to verify the findings. Profiles traversing the sewage sumps at Williams Field outline the extent of the sewage deposition, and give depths to contaminated snow that closely agree with observation. Despite variability in dielectric properties, single-layer migration effectively improves the resolution of subsurface conditions. Recommendations are made for future surveys.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 29 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 94-12
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Introduction Radar equipment General operation Antennas Waveforms and phase polarity Antenna directivity Field procedures and data processing Field procedures Data recording Data processing Site location Results Pegasus runway Access road from Williams Field to Pegasus runway Williams Field Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Airborne profile of a portion of the access road Abstract
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  • 9
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/10
    In: CRREL Report, 82-10
    Description / Table of Contents: Dielectric measurements have been performed on silt and sand samples from permafrost areas using Time Domain Reflectometry. The sample temperatures were varied from +25 °C to -25 °C, and volumetric water content was varied between oven-dry and 0.55 gH2O/cm3. The data were processed for frequencies between 0.1 and 5.0 GHz. The results show a constant K' and a low K' for frequencies up to 1 GHz. A frequency dependence seen on the data above 2 GHz is probably the result of unfrozen, adsorbed water. At moisture levels near saturation at all temperatures, these soils have excellent propagation characteristics for ground-probing radar operating below 0.3 GHz. Massive ice should be easily detectable in permafrost within a few degrees of 0 °C.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 7 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-10
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/8
    In: CRREL Report, 78-8
    Description / Table of Contents: The interaction of a 5.1-GHz transverse electric surface wave with a dielectric slab is experimentally investigated. The wave is initially supported by a dielectric substrate resting upon a metallic ground-plane. A slab, made of the same dielectric material as the substrate and variable in height, is then placed upon the waveguide. The results for a small slab sitting on the substrate showed that the discontinuity was a very inefficient launcher of reflected surface waves. Investigations of these reflections with a trough waveguide showed that, for values of slab height comparable to the exponential decay height of the surface wave, the reflections remain very small. However, as the slab height is increased beyond the decay height, the reflected amplitude approaches the theoretical value for a plane wave reflected from the interface between air and the same dielectric. The results are applicable to surface wave methods of microwave deicing of wings and helicopter rotors.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 16 S. : graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-8
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Background Objective and procedure Theory of plane surface waves Waveguide design and characteristics Physical apparatus Frequency characteristics Spatial distribution of Ey above the guide Guide wave length Surface wave interaction with a slab discontinuity Experiments with a trough Discussion and conclusions Literature cited ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Various means of propagation from an antenna situated above a conducting ordielectric half-space Wave propagation modes as generated by a vertical electric dipole and a vertical mag-netic dipole Coordinate reference system and waveguide parameters for development of the sur-face wave equations Graphical solution of the TE mode equations 7 and 8 Experimental apparatus for investigating TE surface waves Frequency characteristics of the tuner-waveguide combination Profiles of Ey of the TE1 surface wave at 5.1 GHz at various heights above the wave-guide Normalized distribution of the ratio of the field strengths at z = 3.29 cm and z = 2.54cm in Figure 7 for 100 positions along the waveguide Standing wave pattern of the surface wave at 5.1 GHz 610. Profiles of electric field strength above a surface waveguide containing a slab ofvarying height h Probe position and slab dimensions for the data in Table I Profiles of electric field strength at 5.16 GHz above a dielectric trough waveguide con-taining two cases of slabs of height h but different lengths TABLES Table Comparison of theoretical and observed electric field strength ratios above the slab at x=68 cm Maximum observed VSWR and corresponding approximate power loss for the wave-guide sections of Figure 11
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