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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to evaluate the flow field and thrust performance of a promising concept for reducing the noise at take-off of dual-stream turbofan nozzles. The concept, offset stream technology, reduces the jet noise observed on the ground by diverting (offsetting) a portion of the fan flow below the core flow, thickening and lengthening this layer between the high-velocity core flow and the ground observers. In this study a wedge placed in the internal fan stream is used as the diverter. Wind, a Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code, was used to analyze the flow field of the exhaust plume and to calculate nozzle performance. Results showed that the wedge diverts all of the fan flow to the lower side of the nozzle, and the turbulent kinetic energy on the observer side of the nozzle is reduced. This reduction in turbulent kinetic energy should correspond to a reduction in noise. However, because all of the fan flow is diverted, the upper portion of the core flow is exposed to the freestream, and the turbulent kinetic energy on the upper side of the nozzle is increased, creating an unintended noise source. The blockage due to the wedge reduces the fan mass flow proportional to its blockage, and the overall thrust is consequently reduced. The CFD predictions are in very good agreement with experimental flow field data, demonstrating that RANS CFD can accurately predict the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy fields. While this initial design of a large scale wedge nozzle did not meet noise reduction or thrust goals, this study identified areas for improvement and demonstrated that RANS CFD can be used to improve the concept.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: Journal of Fluids Engineering; Volume 131; Issue 4; 41104-1 - 41104-17
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: A large-eddy simulation (LES) code was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to provide more accurate and detailed computational analyses of propulsion flow fields. The accuracy of current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods is limited primarily by their inability to properly account for the turbulent motion present in virtually all propulsion flows. Because the efficiency and performance of a propulsion system are highly dependent on the details of this turbulent motion, it is critical for CFD to accurately model it. The LES code promises to give new CFD simulations an advantage over older methods by directly computing the large turbulent eddies, to correctly predict their effect on a propulsion system. Turbulent motion is a random, unsteady process whose behavior is difficult to predict through computer simulations. Current methods are based on Reynolds-Averaged Navier- Stokes (RANS) analyses that rely on models to represent the effect of turbulence within a flow field. The quality of the results depends on the quality of the model and its applicability to the type of flow field being studied. LES promises to be more accurate because it drastically reduces the amount of modeling necessary. It is the logical step toward improving turbulent flow predictions. In LES, the large-scale dominant turbulent motion is computed directly, leaving only the less significant small turbulent scales to be modeled. As part of the prediction, the LES method generates detailed information on the turbulence itself, providing important information for other applications, such as aeroacoustics. The LES code developed at Glenn for propulsion flow fields is being used to both analyze propulsion system components and test improved LES algorithms (subgrid-scale models, filters, and numerical schemes). The code solves the compressible Favre-filtered Navier- Stokes equations using an explicit fourth-order accurate numerical scheme, it incorporates a compressible form of Smagorinsky s model for the subgrid-scale turbulence, and it uses generalized curvilinear coordinates to allow analysis of a wide range of geometries. The code runs in parallel on shared memory multiprocessor computers and is written in Fortran 90 with dynamic memory allocation. A sample result for a Mach-1.4 round jet is presented in the figure. Instantaneous Mach number contours in several cross-planes downstream of the nozzle exit are shown, illustrating how an LES captures the large unsteady three-dimensional turbulent structures present in the jet.
    Keywords: Numerical Analysis
    Type: Research and Technology 2002; NASA/TM-2003-211990
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Nozzle boattail drag is significant for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and can be as high as 25% of the overall propulsion system thrust at transonic conditions. Thus, nozzle boattail drag has the potential to create a thrust-drag pinch and can reduce HSCT aircraft aerodynamic efficiencies at transonic operating conditions. In order to accurately predict HSCT performance, it is imperative that nozzle boattail drag be accurately predicted. Previous methods to predict HSCT nozzle boattail drag were suspect in the transonic regime. In addition, previous prediction methods were unable to account for complex nozzle geometry and were not flexible enough for engine cycle trade studies. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) effort was conducted by NASA and McDonnell Douglas to evaluate the magnitude and characteristics of HSCT nozzle boattail drag at transonic conditions. A team of engineers used various CFD codes and provided consistent, accurate boattail drag coefficient predictions for a family of HSCT nozzle configurations. The CFD results were incorporated into a nozzle drag database that encompassed the entire HSCT flight regime and provided the basis for an accurate and flexible prediction methodology.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: First NASA/Industry High-Speed Research Configuration Aerodynamics Workshop; Part 1; 223-270; NASA/CP-1999-209690/PT1
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A three-dimensional full Navier-Stokes (FNS) analysis was performed on a mixer/ejector nozzle designed to reduce the jet noise created at takeoff by a future supersonic transport. The PARC3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to study the flow field of the nozzle. The grid that was used in the analysis consisted of approximately 900,000 node points contained in eight grid blocks. Two nozzle configurations were studied: a constant area mixing section and a diverging mixing section. Data are presented for predictions of pressure, velocity, and total temperature distributions and for evaluations of internal performance and mixing effectiveness. The analysis provided good insight into the behavior of the flow.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 92-3570
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Flow through a combined ventral and axial exhaust nozzle system was studied experimentally and analytically. The work is part of an ongoing propulsion technology effort at NASA Lewis Research Center for short takeoff, vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The experimental investigation was done on the NASA Lewis Powered Lift Facility. The experiment consisted of performance testing over a range of tailpipe pressure ratios from 1 to 3.2 and flow visualization. The analytical investigation consisted of modeling the same configuration and solving for the flow using the PARC3D computational fluid dynamics program. The comparison of experimental and analytical results was very good. The ventral nozzle performance coefficients obtained from both the experimental and analytical studies agreed within 1.2 percent. The net horizontal thrust of the nozzle system contained a significant reverse thrust component created by the flow overturning in the ventral duct. This component resulted in a low net horizontal thrust coefficient. The experimental and analytical studies showed very good agreement in the internal flow patterns.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: AIAA PAPER 91-2135
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: A computational fluid dynamics code has been developed for large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent flow. The code uses high-order of accuracy and high-resolution numerical methods to minimize solution error and maximize the resolution of the turbulent structures. Spatial discretization is performed using explicit central differencing. The central differencing schemes in the code include 2nd- to 12th-order standard central difference methods as well as 7-, 9-, 11- and 13-point dispersion relation preserving schemes. Solution filtering and high-order shock capturing are included for stability. Time discretization is performed using multistage Runge-Kutta methods that are up to 4th order accurate. Several options are available to model turbulence including: Baldwin-Lomax and Spalart-Allmaras Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models, and Smagorinsky, Dynamic Smagorinsky and Vreman sub-grid scale models for LES. This report presents the theory behind the numerical and physical models used in the code and provides a user's manual to the operation of the code.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: NASA/TM-2019-220192 , GRC-E-DAA-TN67540
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In the context of Large Eddy Simulations (LES), the effects of inflow turbulence are investigated through the Synthetic Eddy Method (SEM). The growth rate of a turbulent compressible mixing layer corresponding to operating conditions of GeobelDutton Case 2 is investigated herein. The effects of spanwise width on the growth rate of the mixing layer is investigated such that spanwise width independence is reached. The error in neglecting inflow turbulence effects is quantified by comparing two methodologies: (1) Hybrid-RANS-LES methodology and (2) SEM-LES methodology. Best practices learned from Case 2 are developed herein and then applied to a higher convective mach number corresponding to Case 4 experiments of GeobelDutton.
    Keywords: Aeronautics (General); Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: GRC-E-DAA-TN38252 , SciTech 2017; 9-13 Jan. 2017; Grapevine, TX; United States
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: A numerical method to simulate high Reynolds number jet flows was formulated and applied to gain a better understanding of the flow physics. Large-eddy simulation was chosen as the most promising approach to model the turbulent structures due to its compromise between accuracy and computational expense. The filtered Navier-Stokes equations were developed including a total energy form of the energy equation. Subgrid scale models for the momentum and energy equations were adapted from compressible forms of Smagorinsky's original model. The effect of using disparate temporal and spatial accuracy in a numerical scheme was discovered through one-dimensional model problems and a new uniformly fourth-order accurate numerical method was developed. Results from two- and three-dimensional validation exercises show that the code accurately reproduces both viscous and inviscid flows. Numerous axisymmetric jet simulations were performed to investigate the effect of grid resolution, numerical scheme, exit boundary conditions and subgrid scale modeling on the solution and the results were used to guide the three-dimensional calculations. Three-dimensional calculations of a Mach 1.4 jet showed that this LES simulation accurately captures the physics of the turbulent flow. The agreement with experimental data was relatively good and is much better than results in the current literature. Turbulent intensities indicate that the turbulent structures at this level of modeling are not isotropic and this information could lend itself to the development of improved subgrid scale models for LES and turbulence models for RANS simulations. A two point correlation technique was used to quantify the turbulent structures. Two point space correlations were used to obtain a measure of the integral length scale, which proved to be approximately 1/2 D(sub j). Two point space-time correlations were used to obtain the convection velocity for the turbulent structures. This velocity ranged from 0.57 to 0.71 U(sub j).
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: NASA/TM-2001-210716 , E-12669 , NAS 1.15:210716
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Flow through a combined ventral and axial exhaust nozzle system was studied experimentally and analytically. The work is part of an ongoing propulsion technology effort at NASA Lewis Research Center for short takeoff, vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The experimental investigation was done on the NASA Lewis Powered Lift Facility. The experiment consisted of performance testing over a range of tailpipe pressure ratios from 1 to 3.2 and flow visualization. The analytical investigation consisted of modeling the same configuration and solving for the flow using the PARC3D computational fluid dynamics program. The comparison of experimental and analytical results was very good. The ventral nozzle performance coefficients obtained from both the experimental and analytical studies agreed within 1.2 percent. The net horizontal thrust of the nozzle system contained a significant reverse thrust component created by the flow overturning in the ventral duct. This component resulted in a low net horizontal thrust coefficient. The experimental and analytical studies showed very good agreement in the internal flow patterns.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT PROPULSION AND POWER
    Type: NASA-TM-104364 , E-6160 , NAS 1.15:104364 , AIAA PAPER 91-2135 , Joint Propulsion Conference; 24-27 Jun. 1991; Sacramento, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A comparison of the NPARC, PAB, and WIND (previously known as NASTD) Navier-Stokes solvers is made for two flow cases with turbulent mixing as the dominant flow characteristic, a two-dimensional ejector nozzle and a Mach 1.5 elliptic jet. The objective of the work is to determine if comparable predictions of nozzle flows can be obtained from different Navier-Stokes codes employed in a multiple site research program. A single computational grid was constructed for each of the two flows and used for all of the Navier-Stokes solvers. In addition, similar k-e based turbulence models were employed in each code, and boundary conditions were specified as similarly as possible across the codes. Comparisons of mass flow rates, velocity profiles, and turbulence model quantities are made between the computations and experimental data. The computational cost of obtaining converged solutions with each of the codes is also documented. Results indicate that all of the codes provided similar predictions for the two nozzle flows. Agreement of the Navier-Stokes calculations with experimental data was good for the ejector nozzle. However, for the Mach 1.5 elliptic jet, the calculations were unable to accurately capture the development of the three dimensional elliptic mixing layer.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA/TM-1999-209184 , E-11693 , NAS 1.15:209184 , AIAA Paper 99-0748 , Aerospace Sciences; 11-14 Jan. 1999; Reno, NV; United States
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