acid mine drainage
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract A review is presented of 28 studies in the literature of diatoms in environments at pH ≤3.5, including natural and anthropogenic acid sources. A total of 124 diatom taxa have been reported, but many are likely to have been accidental occurrences, because only a few specimens were found. Approximately 19 taxa abundant in at least one study or common in several studies are considered true inhabitants of highly acidic waters. These include: Achnanthes minutissima, Eunotia exigua, E. tenella, E. septentrionalis, E. osoresanensis, E. arcus, E. glacialis, E. pectinalis, Frustulia rhomboides, F. rhomboides var. saxonica, Nitzschia capitellata/subcapitellata, Nitzschia communis, Nitzschia pusilla, Nitzschia vasta, Pinnularia acoricola, P. obscura, P. braunii var. amphicephala, P. subcapitata and P. terminitina. There are inconsistencies in the taxonomy of several of these species and possible synonymies could lower the number of taxa to less than 9. Compared to diatom species richness in environments at pH 4.5–5.0, there are many fewer taxa in environments ≤ pH 3.5, suggesting a threshold between pH 4.5 and 3.5 below which many species are unable to maintain a population.
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