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  • 1
    Call number: IASS 12.0064
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXI, 262 S. , graph. Darst., Kt. , 210 mm x 148 mm
    ISBN: 9783631630822
    Series Statement: Development economics and policy 66
    Branch Library: IASS Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: Porin deficiency ; muscle biopsy ; porin isoforms ; VDAC ; lipid-bilayer membrane ; volt age dependence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A bioptic specimen from the muscles of a patient suffering from severe myopathy was inspected for the presence of human porin 31HL. Western blotting suggested that the specimen was free of the most abundant eukaryotic porin 31HL (HVDAC1). The specimen was treated with detergent and the soluble protein fraction was passed through a dry hydroxyapatite column. The passthrough of this column was inspected for channel formation in artificial lipid-bilayer membranes. The channel observed under these conditions had a single-channel conductance of about 2.5 nS in 1 M KCl, was cation selective, and was found to be virtually voltage independent. Experiments with a control specimen from a healthy human being, without any indication for muscle myopathy, revealed the presence of the voltage-dependent porin 31HL in the sample. It is discussed whether the patient's bioptic specimen contained another human porin, which has not been studied to date in its natural environment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-6881
    Keywords: Porin ; VDAC ; caveolae ; plasmalemma ; cholesterol transport ; maxi chloride channel ; patch clamp ; biotin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Mitochondrial porin, or VDAC, is a pore-forming protein abundant in the outer mitochondrialmembrane. Several publications have reported extramitochondrial localizations as well, butthe evidence was considered insufficient by many, and the presence of porin in nonmitochondrialcellular compartments has remained in doubt for a long time. We have now obtained newdata indicating that the plasma membrane of hematopoietic cells contains porin, probablylocated mostly in caveolae or caveolae-like domains. Porin was purified from the plasmamembrane of intact cells by a procedure utilizing the membrane-impermeable labeling reagentNH-SS-biotin and streptavidin affinity chromatography, and shown to have the same propertiesas mitochondrial porin. A channel with properties similar to that of isolated VDAC wasobserved by patch-clamping intact cells. This review discusses the evidence supportingextramitochondrial localization, the putative identification of the plasma membrane porin with the“maxi” chloride channel, the hypothetical mechanisms of sorting porin to various cellularmembrane structures, and its possible functions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are a family of pore-forming proteins encoded by different genes, with at least three protein products expressed in mammalian tissues. The major recognized functional role of VDACs is to permit the almost free permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Although VDAC1 is the best known among VDAC isoforms, its exclusively mitochondrial location is still debated. Therefore, we have measured its co-localization with markers of cellular organelles or compartments in skeletal muscle fibers by single or double immunofluorescence and traditional as well as confocal microscopy. Our results show that VDAC1 immunoreactivity corresponds to mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum, while sarcolemmal reactivity, previously reported, was not observed. Since VDAC1 has been suggested to be involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation, we sought for possible gene regulation of VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 in skeletal muscle of the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse, which suffers of an impaired control of energy metabolism. Our results show that, while VDAC1 mRNA and protein and VDAC2 mRNA are normally expressed, VDAC3 mRNA is markedly down-regulated in mdx mouse muscle at different ages (before, during and after the outburst of myofiber necrosis). This finding suggests a possible involvement of VDAC3 expression in the early pathogenic events of the mdx muscular dystrophy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
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    ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Trade liberalization is no Pareto-improvement - there are winners (high-skilled) and losers (low-skilled). To compensate the losers the government is assumed to introduce unemployment benefits (UB). These benefits are financed by either a wage tax, a payroll tax, or a profit tax. Using a Melitz-type model of international trade with unionized labour markets and heterogeneous workers we show that: (i) UB financed by a wage tax reduce aggregate employment but increase welfare measured by per capita output. (ii) UB financed by a payroll tax reduce aggregate employment and welfare. If UB exceeds a well-defined threshold, the trade gains will be completely destroyed. (iii) UB financed by a profit tax reduce the unemployment rate of the low-skilled, but also reduces welfare. The threshold for the level of UB, where the trade gains are destroyed by the redistribution scheme, is higher compared to the case of a payroll tax.
    Keywords: F10 ; F16 ; H20 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:conferenceObject
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words Mitochondrial proteins ; Nuclear genes ; Drosophila ; Evolutionary conservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract As a first step towards using cross-species comparison to complete the inventory of the nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial polypeptides, and ultimately to understand their function through systematic molecular and genetic analysis in a model organism of choice, we report here the characterization of 41 Drosophila melanogaster cDNAs. These cDNAs were isolated by screening an ovarian expression library with antibodies against mitochondrial proteins and identify 17 novel Drosophila genes. The deduced amino acid sequences encoded by the majority of these cDNAs turned out to show significant homology to mitochondrial proteins previously identified in other species. Among others, ORFs putatively encoding six different subunits of ATP synthase and three NADH:ubiquinone reductase subunits were detected. By in situ hybridization, all cDNAs were mapped to single bands on polytene chromosomes, thus identifying candidate Drosophila genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis and maintenance. A search of the Human Gene Index database made it possible in most cases to align the entire Drosophila coding sequence with a human consensus sequence, suggesting that the cDNAs originate from insect counterparts of expressed mammalian genes. Our experimental strategy represents an efficient approach to the identification and interspecies comparison of genes encoding products targeted to the mitochondrion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key words NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase acyl carrier protein ; Drosophila melanogaster ; Alternative splicing ; P-element-induced mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have isolated the Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein (mtACP), a subunit of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mitochondrion. This gene expresses two distinct mature transcripts by alternative splicing, which encode mature polypeptides of 86 (mtACP1A) and 88 (mtACP1B) amino acids, respectively. Drosophila mtACP1 is 72% identical to mammalian mtACP, 47% identical to Arabidopsis thaliana mtACP, and 46% identical to Neurospora crassa mtACP. The most highly conserved region encompasses the site that binds pantetheine-4′-phosphate in all known ACPs. Southern analysis of genomic DNA and in situ hybridization to salivary gland chromosomes indicate that a single gene (mtacp1), located at 61F6–8, encodes the two isoforms of D. melanogaster mtACP1. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene contains four exons and that exons IIIA and IIIB are alternatively spliced. A P-element-induced loss-of-function mutation in the mtacp1 gene causes lethality, indicating that the gene is essential for viability. Developmental Northern analysis shows that mtacp1 is expressed at higher levels during late embryogenesis, in the pupa and in the adult. RNA in situ hybridization on embryos indicates that the mtacp1 gene is highly expressed in the tracheal system. Zygotic mtacp1 function is required for both male and female gametogenesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract The performance of pyrrole and thiophene polymer electrodes in lithium cells has been examined in the lithium perchlorate–propylene carbonate electrolyte by cyclic voltammetry. Polypyrrole films were synthesized in 'wet' and 'dry' conditions; pyrrole and thiophene copolymers were prepared at different potentials and bilayers were prepared by sequential deposition of polythiophene (PTh) and polypyrrole (PPy) films. The polymers were cycled between 2.0V and 4.0V in the lithium cells. The effects of disconnecting the electrodes from the cell on the behaviour of the polymers regarding doping and coulombic efficiency were also studied. The cycling performance of the 'wet' PPy is better than 'dry' PPy, bilayer PTh/PPy and copolymers. No mixed behaviour was observed for a bilayer where the inner layer was polythiophene and the outer layer was polypyrrol with a thickness PPy/Pth ratio equal to ten. The copolymer prepared at 3.9V vs Li/Li+ showed the higher energy capacity in Whkg–1 calculated from the anodic charge.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2019-08-22
    Description: Trade unions are often argued to cause allocative inefficiencies and to lower welfare. We analyze whether this evaluation is also justified in a Cournot-oligopoly with free but costly entry. If input markets are competitive and output per firm declines with the number of firms (business stealing), there is excessive entry into such oligopoly. If trade unions raise wages above the competitive level, output and profits per firm decline, which could deter entry and thus improve welfare. We find that an increase in the union's bargaining power raises welfare if the (inverse) demand curve is (sufficiently) concave. We also show that collective bargaining loosens the linkage between business stealing and excessive entry.
    Keywords: D43 ; J51 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; endogenous entry ; oligopoly ; trade union ; welfare
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 10
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    Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-04
    Description: In a Cournot-oligopoly with free but costly entry and business stealing, output per firm is too low and the number of competitors excessive, assuming labor productivity to depend on the number of employees only or to be constant. However, a firm can raise the productivity of its workforce by paying higher wages. We show that such efficiency wages accentuate the distortions occurring in oligopoly. Specifically, excessive entry is aggravated and the welfare loss due to market power rises.
    Keywords: D43 ; J31 ; L13 ; ddc:330 ; oligopoly ; efficiency wages ; excessive entry ; welfare
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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