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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-13
    Description: The subsurface oceanic circulation is an important part of the Earth climate system. Subsurface currents traditionally are inferred indirectly from distributions of temperature and dissolved substances, occasionally supplemented by current meter measurements. Neutrally-buoyant floats however, now enable us to obtain for the first time directly measured intermediate depth velocity fields over large areas such as the western South Atlantic. Here, our combined data set provides unprecedented observations and quantification of key flow patterns, such as the Subtropical Gyre return flow (12 Sv; 1 Sverdrup = 10(6)m(3)s(-1)), its bifurcation near the Santos Plateau and the resulting continuous narrow and swift northward intermediate western boundary current (4 Sv). This northward flowing water passes through complex equatorial flows and finally enters into the North Atlantic.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NAS 1.15:89017 , L-16180 , NASA-TM-89017
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A collection of spectral reflectances of 156 natural targets is presented in a uniform format. For each target both a graphical plot and a digital tabulation of reflectance is given. The data were taken from the literature and include laboratory, field, and aircraft measurements. A discussion of the different measurements of reflectance is given, along with the changes in apparent reflectance when targets are viewed through the atmosphere. The salient features of the reflectance curves of common target types are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.61:1139 , NASA-RP-1139 , L-15920
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archive from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle-concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud-encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long-range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminaar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the narrative, analysis, and conclusions. Volume II contains five supporting appendixes.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-85835-VOL-2 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-2 , L-15789-VOL-2
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary studies are presented for the entire cloud observation archieve from the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Studies are also presented for GASP particle concentration data gathered concurrently with the cloud observations. Cloud encounters are shown on about 15 percent of the data samples overall, but the probability of cloud encounter is shown to vary significantly with altitude, latitude, and distance from the tropopause. Several meteorological circulation features are apparent in the latitudinal distribution of cloud cover, and the cloud encounter statistics are shown to be consistent with the classical mid-latitude cyclone model. Observations of clouds spaced more closely than 90 minutes are shown to be statistically dependent. The statistics for cloud and particle encounter are utilized to estimate the frequency of cloud encounter on long range airline routes, and to assess the probability and extent of laminar flow loss due to cloud or particle encounter by aircraft utilizing laminar flow control (LFC). It is shown that the probability of extended cloud encounter is too low, of itself, to make LFC impractical.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: L-15789-VOL-1 , NASA-TM-85835-VOL-1 , NAS 1.15:85835-VOL-1
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Infrared horizon radiance profiles for winter conditions based on Scanner project flight test
    Keywords: NAVIGATION
    Type: NASA-TN-D-4905
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Summary statistics, tabulations, and variability studies are presented for cloud encounter and particle concentration data taken as part of the NASA global atmospheric sampling program. Cloud encounter was experienced in about 15 percent of the data samples; however, the percentage varies with season, latitude, and altitude (particularly distance from the tropopause). In agreement with classical storm models, the data show more clouds in the upper troposphere in anticyclones than in cyclones. The concentration of particles with a diameter greater than 3 micron also varies with time and location, depending primarily on the horizontal extent of cloudiness. Some examples of the application of the statistical data to the estimation of the frequency of cloud encounter and laminar flow loss to be expected on long range airline routes are also presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TP-1886 , L-14483
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-80044
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Type: 58th Annual Eastern Snow Conference; Ottawa, Ontario; Canada
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Structural shell response to aerodynamic buffet and noise
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-450
    Format: application/pdf
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