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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The validity of integrating over discrete wavelength bands is examined to estimate total shortwave bidirectional reflectance of vegetated and bare soil surfaces. Methods for estimating albedo from multiple angle, discrete wavelength band radiometer measurements are studied. These methods include a numerical integration technique and the integration of an empirically derived equation for bidirectional reflectance. It is concluded that shortwave albedos estimated through both techniques agree favorably with the independent pyranometer measurements. Absolute rms errors are found to be 0.5 percent or less for both grass sod and bare soil surfaces.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Remote Sensing of Environment (ISSN 0034-4257); 35; 201-211
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A frequency modulated continuous wave C-band (4.8 GHz) scatterometer was mounted on an aerial lift truck and backscatter coefficients of corn were acquired as functions of polarizations, view angles, and row directions. As phytomass and green leaf area index increased, the backscatter also increased. Near anthesis when the canopies were fully developed, the major scattering elements were located in the upper 1 m of the 2.8 m tall canopy and little backscatter was measured below that level. C-band backscatter data could provide information to monitor vegetation at large view zenith angles.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-188022 , NAS 1.26:188022
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E86-10010 , NAS 1.26:171894 , LARS-TR-042382 , NASA-CR-171894
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171842 , E85-10081 , LARS-TR-111284 , NAS 1.26:171842
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A valuable input to crop growth and yield models would be estimates of current crop condition. If multispectral reflectance indicates crop condition, then remote sensing may provide an additional tool for crop assessment. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on the spectral reflectance and agronomic characteristics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined through field experiments. Spectral reflectance was measured during the 1979 and 1980 growing seasons with a spectroradiometer. Agronomic data included total leaf N concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration, stage of development, leaf area index (LAI), plant moisture, and fresh and dry phytomass. Nitrogen deficiency caused increased visible, reduced near infrared, and increased middle infrared reflectance. These changes were related to lower levels of chlorophyll and reduced leaf area in the N-deficient plots. Green LAI, an important descriptor of wheat canopies, could be reliably estimated with multispectral data. The potential of remote sensing in distinguishing stressed from healthy crops is demonstrated. Evidence suggests multispectral imagery may be useful for monitoring crop condition.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LARS-TR-111484 , NASA-CR-171843 , E85-10080 , NAS 1.26:171843
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnitude of plant-to-plant variability of leaf area of corn plants selected from uniform plots was examined and four representative methods for measuring leaf area index (LAI) were evaluated. The number of plants required and the relative costs for each sampling method were calculated to detect 10, 20, and 50% differences in LAI using 0.05 and 0.01 tests of significance and a 90% probability of success (beta = 0.1). The natural variability of leaf area per corn plant was nearly 10%. Additional variability or experimental error may be introduced by the measurement technique employed and by nonuniformity within the plot. Direct measurement of leaf area with an electronic area meter had the lowest CV, required that the fewest plants be sampled, but required approximately the same amount of time as the leaf area/weight ratio method to detect comparable differences. Indirect methods based on measurements of length and width of leaves required more plants but less total time than the direct method. Unless the coefficients for converting length and width to area are verified frequently, the indirect methods may be biased. When true differences in LAI among treatments exceed 50% of mean, all four methods are equal. The method of choice depends on the resources available, the differences to be detected, and what additional information, such as leaf weight or stalk weight, is also desired.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171792 , NASA-CR-171792 , E84-10162 , LARS-TR-030784
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Knowledge of when critical crop stages occur and how the environment affects them should provide useful information for crop management decisions and crop production models. Two sources of data were evaluated for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity of corn (Zea mays L.). Initial evaluations were conducted using data of an adapted corn hybrid grown on a Typic Agriaquoll at the Purdue University Agronomy Farm. The second phase extended the analyses to large areas using data acquired by the Statistical Reporting Service of USDA for crop reporting districts (CRD) in Indiana and Iowa. Several thermal models were compared to calendar days for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity. Mixed models which used a combination of thermal units to predict silking and days after silking to predict physiological maturity were also evaluated. At the Agronomy Farm the models were calibrated and tested on the same data. The thermal models were significantly less biased and more accurate than calendar days for predicting dates of silking. Differences among the thermal models were small. Significant improvements in both bias and accuracy were observed when the mixed models were used to predict dates of physiological maturity. The results indicate that statistical data for CRD can be used to evaluate models developed at agricultural experiment stations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10160 , NAS 1.26:171790 , LARS-TR-021584 , NASA-CR-171790
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171791 , NASA-CR-171791 , E84-10161 , LARS-TR-011584
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Numerous mathematical models of the interaction of radiation with vegetation canopies have been developed over the last two decades. However, data with which to exercise and validate these models are scarce. During three days in the summer of 1980, experiments are conducted with the objective of gaining insight about the effects of solar illumination and view angles on soybean canopy reflectance. In concert with these experiment, extensive measurements of the soybean canopies are obtained. This document is a compilation of the bidirectional reflectance factors, agronomic, characteristics, canopy geometry, and leaf, stem, and pod optical properties of the soybean canopies. These data sets should be suitable for use with most vegetation canopy reflectance models.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171895 , E86-10005 , NAS 1.26:171895 , LARS-TR-071584
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Most models of crop growth and yield require an estimate of canopy leaf area index (LAI) or absorption of radiation. Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by corn canopies and the spectral reflectance of the canopies were investigated. Reflectance factor data were acquired with a LANDSAT MSS band radiometer. From planting to silking, the three spectrally predicted vegetation indices examined were associated with more than 95% of the variability in absorbed PAR. The relationships developed between absorbed PAR and the three indices were evaluated with reflectance factor data acquired from corn canopies planted in 1979 through 1982. Seasonal cumulations of measured LAI and each of the three indices were associated with greater than 50% of the variation in final grain yields from the test years. Seasonal cumulations of daily absorbed PAR were associated with up to 73% of the variation in final grain yields. Absorbed PAR, cumulated through the growing season, is a better indicator of yield than cumulated leaf area index. Absorbed PAR may be estimated reliably from spectral reflectance data of crop canopies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171822 , NAS 1.26:171822 , LARS-TR-062984 , E85-10041
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