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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-08-31
    Description: The use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been limited. Scientifics seeking for natural substitutes to prevent of aquatic animals diseases. Considering seaweeds are rich of nutritions and bioactive compounds, the purpose of this study is: investigation the potential and use possibility of native seaweeds from Persian Gulf in shrimp aquculture industry to improve growth, survival of postlarvae and to resistance against pathogens such as vibriosis. For this propose 7 macroalgae species from Bushehr province coast, inclouding: green algae (C. iyengarii), brown algae (S. angutifolium and S. ilicifolium) and red algae (L. snyderiae, K. alvarezii and G. corticata) were collected and identified. Then seaweed extracts abtained by Water, Ethanol, Methanol and Chloroform solvents by soaking method. In vitro antibacterial activity of extracts against Gr+ bacteria (S. aureus and B. subtilis) and Gr- bacteria (V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and E. coli) was conducted by Agar diffusion, MIC and MBC methods. Antioxidant activity also by DPPH and EC50 methods was investigated. According to results of these two tests four seaweeds species (S. angutifolium, L. snyderiae, K. alvarezii and G. corticata) were selected for use in shrimp postlarvae (PL22) diets by Bio-Encapsulation (Artemia enrichment). Before of enrichment, toxicity effect of extracts to Artemia nauplii were evaluated by determination of LC50 24 h method. From results of this section Ethanol extracts were selected to bioencapsulation. After encapsulation shrimp postlarvae divided to 12 groups in triplicate, namely: C-, C+, S (200), S (400), S (600), L(200), L(400), L(600), G(300), G(600), K(300) and K(600). During 30 days of reared period C- and C+ use of basal diet and unenriched Artemia, but the other groups use of basal diet and enriched Artemia. Except C-, the shrimps in first day of culture put in 107 cfu/ml v. harveyi suspension for 30 minutes, and after water exchange 10 ml of this dose was added to reared aquaria. After 30 days survival percentage, obtained weight and SGR% were investigated. To evaluate vibrio loading, every 10 days 5 postlarvae were sampled randomly for vibrio count. Results showed that vibrio count in C- was less than the others and in C+ was more than the others. In treatments vibrio count in L(200) was the most and L(600) was the less. Survival rate in C- was the most and after that G(600) with 79.4±6.6% and then S(300) and K(600) were 73.3±7.3% and 70.6±6.6% respectively that were significantly compare the other (P 〈 0.01). Also the C+ was the less with 33.3±6.6% that difference was significant (P〈 0.01). In this study growth parameters of all groups that fed by enriched Artemia were better than C+ (P〈0.05). After cultre period 10 shrimp of every aquarium disinfected and reared for 10 days like before treatment. After 10 days the shrimps were challenged by 3×108 cfu/ml V. harveyi and mortality was recorded for 7 days. The all of animals in C- were survive but more than 90% of C+ were dead. And survival in all of treatments were better the C+ (P〈0.05). The study showed the ethanol extracts of selected seaweed from Persian Gulf is a good source for growth, Survival and disease control in shrimp larviculture.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Health
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-13
    Description: White Spot Virus (WSV) is currently the most serious viral pathogen of shrimp worldwide; it causes mortality up to 100% within 7-10 days in commercial shrimp farms. Infected Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus samples were collected from Guatr shrimp site in Sistan and Baluchestan province in south of Iran and WSV infection was confirmed by Nested PCR. WSV was isolated from infected shrimp samples by centrifugation and filtration and multiplied in crayfish by intramuscular inoculation, the isolated virus was called WSV/IRN/1/2010. In order to determine the dilution resulting in 90-100% mortality in Penaeus semiculcatus, diluted virus stock in steps from 10^0 till 10^5 times in sterile PBS was injected intramuscularly to 14 shrimps in each group. Also the virus stock was diluted in steps from 1/2 till 1/32 times in sterile PBS and injected intramuscularly in Astacus leptodactylus crayfish. Therefore the LD50 of live virus stock in Astacus leptodactylus and Penaeus semiculcatus crayfish were calculated by the Karber method 10^3.29 /ml and 10^5.35 /ml, respectively.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-04-24
    Description: During the last decade, shrimp aquaculture has developed rapidly in many developing countries. Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in shrimp aquaculture. Seaweeds are considered as potent source of bioactive compounds that are able to produce biological activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanolic and chloroformic crude extracts of the brown algae, Sargassum latifolium derived from Persian Gulf waters. The extractions against shrimp selective pathogen bacteria including Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi were used by disk diffusion agar method. Results revealed that all mentioned bacteria were sensitive to both ethanolic and chloroformic crude extracts of S. latifolium. The minimum inhibitory concentration of chloroformic extract of S. latifolium against the bacteria was performed by tube dilution technique. MICs were 5, 10 and 10 mg ml^-1 for V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi, respectively while minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were 5, 15 and 20 mg ml^-1. This study recommended that S. latifolium isolated from Persian Gulf waters has antibacterial activity potential against shrimp pathogen bacteria.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-02
    Description: This study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of replacing Z. multiflora instead of antibiotics and chemicals in shrimp aquaculture industry to protect the environment and prevention of microbial resistance. In vitro MIC of Z. multiflora essential oil against Candida albicans and Fusarium solani obtained 0.004% and 0.008% respectively, also MFC of Z. multiflora essential oil against C. albicans and F. solani was 0.004% and 0.04%, respectively. The results showed that 0.0002% dosage of Z. multiflora essential oil against total count of fungi in sea water (salinity 39±1ppt) can decrease growth of fungi after 6 h and 0.0004%, 0.0008% and 0.0016% dosages can decrease the total count of fungi in sea water. But very low dosage of Z. multiflora essential oil in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei leads to mortality. Lethal dose of Z. multiflora essential oil in shrimp postlarvae, juvenile (2±0.2g) and adults (10-12 g) was 0.00050%, 0.00045% and 0.00035%, respectively. The results indicated that Z. multiflora have a significant anti-fungal effect but is toxic for L. vannamei. We recommend that Z. multiflora essential oil can be used in non-living environment, such as disinfecting tanks and equipments.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-15
    Description: Bacterial diseases have been reported to be the major limiting factor in shrimp production. The use of natural products such as antimicrobials has been reported as a solution to the problem. The crude extract of a red seaweed Laurencia snyderiae obtained from the Persian Gulf was evaluated for shrimp growth performance and to determine in vivo efficacy of this seaweed in the prevention of shrimp Vibriosis. The ethanol extract from L. snyderiae (EELS) that was fed to the Artemia instar I for their enrichment was found to be non toxic to them. Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles were fed with these enriched Artemia at 0 mg mL^-1 (Control group), 200 mg mL^-1, 400 mg mL^-1 and 600 mg mL^-1 for 30 days. The results obtained showed a significant increase (p〈0.05) in survival rate in treatment groups compared with that in the control group. Shrimps fed with enriched Artemia showed a significant improvement in growth parameters when compared to those in the control group. When these juvenile shrimps were exposed to Vibrio harveyi (after 30 days) they showed notably lower mortality than the control. These results indicate that EELS has a good potential in promoting growth and antibacterial activities against V. harveyi that is useful in shrimp aquaculture.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-04-10
    Description: The first time the white spot disease (WSD) and IHHNV were reported in Iran was in 2004 and 2008, respectively in Bushehr Province. In Sistan and Balochestan province only the WSD was reported in 2008.The aim of this study was detecting these two viral diseases in these provinces, during December 2009 to April 2010. A total of 364 samples were collected according to suspected gross signs from hatcheries and shrimp farms in Bushehr and Sistan and Blochestan provinces (I.R. Iran) respectively, including larvae (72, 43 samples), post larvae (48, 37 samples), juveniles (57, 32 samples), sub adults (39, 22 samples) and broodstock (29, 13 samples) of Litopenaus vannamei . WSD was detected from juveniles (23 samples), sub adults (14 samples), and broodstock (14 samples), and IHHNV was also detected from juveniles (16 samples), sub adults (9 samples) and broodstock (5 samples) based on gross signs, PCR and histopathological changes from Bushehr province but from Sistan and Blochestan province only WSD was detected from juveniles (26 samples), sub adults (18 samples) and broodstock (7 samples). Histopathological observations of WSSV showed basophilic Cowdry type A inclusion bodies in all tissues such as gills, haematopoietic tissue, cuticle epithelium, lymphoid organ and connective tissue. However histologically, the hepatopancreas tissue showed vacuolization of B cells , without inclusion bodies, but histopatholgical changes caused IHHNV including eosinophilic Cowdry type A inclusion bodies which were ectodermal, mesodermal and rarely endodermal.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-08-26
    Description: For the first time in research program and species diversity the white legged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was introduced in Iran in 2005 by Iranian Fisheries Research Organization. In two recent years two projects was carried out successfully in Hele Research Station and according of these projects study of growth, survival rate and final harvesting of Litopenaeus vannamei impact of 25, 35 and 50 (per/m^2) stocking densities was done .Nine 0.4 ha earthen ponds were stocked from 26 June 2006 to 11 November 2006 and the rate of stocking was 100000,140000 and 200000 Pl in 25, 35 and 50 per /m^2 respectively. We also carried out daily test of pH, temperature and dissolve oxygen two times per day but transparency, depth and salinity one time per day. The mean weight in 120 days was 17/84±2/6, 16/03±1/9 and14/09±2/3 grams in 25, 35 and 50 per /m^2 respectively and highest weight was seen in 25 density. Results demonstrated that there was a significant relation (P〈0.05) between mean weight. The yield were 1745, 2055 and 2425 kg/pond although 4/3, 5/1 and 6 ton/ha in 25, 35 and 50 per /m^3 respectively. The maximum and minimum survival rate 97/96 and 88/46 was seen in 25 and 50 per/m^2. The minimum FCR 1.43 was seen in 25 per /m^2. For economical calculating just by using the cost of larva and feeding indicates that the highest benefit percentage was seen in 25 density. The average of salinity, pH, temperature and dissolve oxygen were 36.1-37 ppt, 8.1, 30.2-30.6 degrees centigrade and 5.9- 6.4 mg/l.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-09-03
    Description: In this study two species of algae, Sargassum glaucescens and Padina boergeseni that found plenteously in Persian Gulf and Bushehr coast, were collected and hot water extracts of them were lyophilized. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g), after two weeks adaptation in Shoghab research station were immersed in seawater (39 ppt and 25±1 ○C) containing hot-water extract of each brown algae, S.glaucescens and P.boergeseni, at 100, 300 and 500 mg/l concentration, Survival rate and immunological parameters (total haemocyte count (THC), total plasma protein (TPP), Phagocytic activity, bacterial clearance efficiency and bactericidal activity) were examined. In addition effect of dietary administration of beta 1, 3 1, 6 glucan on prevention of White Spot Disease and immunological parameters of shrimp were investigated. According to results, immersion in seawater containing 300 and 500 mg/l concentration of algal hot-water extract after 2 and 3 hours or oral administration of beta 1,3 1,6 glucan at level of 10 g/kg diet for 14 days significantly enhanced THC, TPP, Phagocytic activity, bacterial clearance efficiency and bactericidal activity. Immersion in seawater containing 100, 300 and 500 mg/l hot-water extract of S.glaucescens after 3 hours, improved the survival rate of WSSV-infected F. indicus.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: Increasing of biodiversity and reduction of production costs and alo increasing of shrimp production are the main elements of production security and continuation of aquaculture of shrimp in the country. The hypothesis of this study is made on the basis of aquaculture of pacific white legged prawn, litopenaeus vannamei, and that is economically better than Indian white prawn in Bushehr area. This study was carried out with the objectives of determination of bionormatives of pacific white legget prawn and yield estimation per square meter and has been compared with Indian white prawn. During 1384-85. In this study, the field operations were carried out after primary preparation and water enrichment with the juvenile prawn (pL 15) with 20 prawn per squar meter in the 3 ponds. During the study the phisico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, ocsysion, pH,two times per day , in the morning and evening and salinity , transpiration and depth water , only one time in a day were measured .The health of prawns and also sampling for the calculation of body weight were carried out in every 10 days . Feeding in the first month was randomly and after that was being continued based on the mean of the body weight. The results of this study have showed that the growth of this species is very fast so that during 90 days with the capacity of 20 prawns per squar , meter, it can be reached to 19.59 gr body weight with the growth rate of 0.217 gr . The mean of total production was 2737.5 kg per hectar with FCR=1. During this study the salinity from 33 ppt to 54 ppt, water temperature from 24.3°c to 35.2°c, occsysion from 2.4 to 11.89 mg/l , pH from 7.83 to 9.01 , transparency from 35 cm to 90 cm and water depth from 100cm to 145 cm were measured and recorded . In the second year, the comparison of growth rate of white legged prawn and Indian white prawn was carried out in the four ponds. The results of this study showed that during 110 days. White legged prawns was reached to average of body weight 14.66 gr and Indian white shrimp, reached to 10.75 gr. The economical assessment showed that white legged prawn has an economical advantage around 2.59 times during 110 days with the capacity of 35 prawns per hectar.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-05
    Description: To introduce the native commercial shrimp species to aquaculture industry, the Iranian Fisheries Research Organization conducted a project to investigate the possibility of reproduction and cultivation of the banana shrimp (Penaeus merguensis). The present work has been carried out from 21st March 2001 in two phase, reproduction and cultivation, in Iran Shrimp Research Center. The main objectives of this study was to find the possibility of reproduction and cultivation of banana shrimp with emphasis on its cost and benefit and to find if this species could be introduced to aquaculture industry in Iran. In this work, 42 brood stocks of banana shrimp caught in Jask waters and were transported to Bushehr. The shrimps were reproduced in aquaculture research station, and then cultivated in 0.4 ha ponds in Heleh region. Most of the broodstocks perished, due to long distance of Jask from Bushehr province, or had problem in hatching. Finally 8 of broodstock shrimps spawned. In 3 cases, the reared naplii larva suffered high mortality, but the other 5 spawner’s bread successfully. The post larvae were introduced to the shrimp ponds. The primary stocking was 360,000 larvae, introduced to each of two 4 m 3 tanks. The survival in both tanks for mysis stage was 83% but for PL stages, the survival was 5% for Tank 1 due to disease outbreak (until PL 24), and 62% for Tank 2. On 10 th June 2001 the PL 24 were stocked into the ponds but unfortunately due to adaptation problem, all of the shrimps perished. It seems that banana shrimp couldn’t to be adapted to the pond condition in Heleh region. On the basis of the results, the reproduction of the banana shrimps is achievable, but broodstocks needs to be transferred to reproduction areas as soon as possible to reduce stress on the shrimps. Our finding shows that the optimum conditions of salinity and temperature for growth of the reared banana shrimp in Heleh region is 33ppt and 30 °C, respectively.
    Keywords: Aquaculture
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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