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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Highlights • The youngest known (2 Ma) volcanically-active subduction system. • Exceptionally diverse range of magma compositions coeval and spatially juxtaposed. • Mixing of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle melt and a slab melt. • Modern example of an immature subduction system building its proto forearc. • Modern analog of the environment where SSZ ophiolites lithosphere forms. Abstract The development of ideas leading to a greater understanding of subduction initiation is limited by the scarcity of present-day examples. Furthermore, the few examples identified so far unfortunately provide few insights into the nature of magmatism at the inception of subduction. Here we report new observations from the Matthew and Hunter (M&H) subduction zone, a very young subduction zone located in the South-West Pacific. Tectonics of the area show it is younger than 2 Ma, making the M&H the youngest known volcanically-active subduction system and hence providing unique insights into the earliest stages of subduction initiation. Volcanism in this area comprises an exceptionally diverse range of contemporaneously erupting magma compositions which are spatially juxtaposed. Pb isotopic compositions and abundance of LILE and REE strongly suggest melting of upwelling asthenospheric mantle (Indian MORB) and subducted oceanic crust (Pacific MORB of the South Fiji Basin) and the mixing of these two components. Volcanism occurs much closer to the trench compared to volcanism in more mature subduction zones. We demonstrate that the M&H subduction zone is a modern example of an immature subduction system at the stage of pre-arc, near-trench magmatism. It is not yet building an arc but what we propose to call a Subduction Initiation Terrane (SITER). Today, the proto-forearc of the M&H subduction zone is a collage of these SITERs, coeval back-arc domains and remnants of pre-existing terranes including old Vitiaz Arc crust. The M&H area represents a modern analog of a Supra Subduction Zone setting where potentially a majority of ophiolites have formed their crustal and lithospheric components. Present-day magmatism in the M&H area therefore provides clues to understanding unforeseen distribution of contrasted magmatic rock types in fossil forearcs, whether they are at the front of mature subduction zones or in ophiolites.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract An experimental investigation of plagioclase crystallization in broadly basaltic/andesitic melts of variable Ca# (Ca/(Ca+Na)*100) and Al# (Al/(Al+Si)*100) values and H2O contents has been carried out at high pressures (5 and 10 kbar) in a solid media piston-cylinder apparatus. The H2O contents of glasses coexisting with liquidus or near-liquidus plagioclases in each experiment were determined via an FTIR spectroscopic technique. This study has shown that melt Ca# and Al#, H2O content and crystallization pressure all control the composition of liquidus plagioclase. Increasing melt Ca# and Al# increase An content of plagioclase, whereas the effect of increasing pressure is the opposite. However, the importance of the role played by each of these factors during crystallization of natural magmas varies. Melt Ca# has the strongest control on plagioclase An content, but melt Al# also exerts a significant control. H2O content can notably increase the An content of plagioclase, up to 10 mol % for H2O-undersaturated melts, and 20 mol % for H2O-saturated melts. Exceptionally calcic plagioclases (up to An100) in some primitive subduction-related boninitic and related rocks cannot be attributed to the presence of the demonstrated amounts of H2O (up to 3 wt %). Rather, they must be due to the involvement of extremely refractory (CaO/Na2O〉18) magmas in the petrogenesis of these rocks. Despite the refractory nature of some primitive MORB glasses, none are in equilibrium with the most calcic plagioclase (An94) found in MORB. These plagioclases were likely produced from more refractory melts with CaO/Na2O = 12–15, or from melts with exceptionally high Al2O3(〉18%). Magmas of appropriate compositions to crystallize these most calcic plagioclases are sometimes found as melt inclusions in near liquidus phenocrysts from these rocks, but are not known among wholerock or glass compositions. The fact that such melts are not erupted as discrete magma batches indicates that they are effectively mixed and homogenized with volumetrically dominant, less refractory magmas. The high H2O contents (∼ 6 wt%) in some high-Al basaltic arc magmas may be responsible for the existence of plagioclases up to An95 in arc lavas. However, an alternative possibility is that petrogenesis involving melts with abnormally high CaO/Na2O values (〉 8) may account for the presence of highly anorthitic plagioclases in these rocks.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-17
    Description: In situ laser ablation inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) has been used to provide a baseline dataset on the minor element contents in hypogene bornite and accompanying Cu-sulfides from 12 deposits with emphasis on syn-metamorphic Cu-vein systems in Norway, and skarn, porphyry and epithermal systems in SE Europe. Bornite contains significant concentrations of both Ag and Bi, especially in the vein and skarn deposits studied and has the potential to be a major Ag-carrier in such ores. Concentrations of up to〉 I wt.% of both elements are documented. Measured concentrations appear to be independent of whether discrete Ag- and/or Bi-minerals are present within the analyzed sulfide. Where bornite and chalcocite ( or mixtures of Cu-sulfides) coexist, Ag is preferentially partitioned into chalcocite over co-existing bornite and Bi is partitioned into the bornite. Bornite is a relatively poor host for Au, which mimics Ag by being typically richer in coexisting chalcocite. Most anomalous Au concentrations in bornite can be readily tracked to micron- and submicron- scale inclusions, but bornite and chalcocite containing up to 3 and 28 ppm Au in solid solution can be documented. Selenium and Te concentrations in bornite may be as high as several thousand ppm and correlate with the abundance of selenides and tellurides within the sample. Selenium distributions show some promise as a vector in exploration, offering the possibility to track a fluid source. Bornite and chalcocite are poor hosts for a range of other elements such as Co, Ni, Ga and Ge, etc. which have been reported to be commonly substituted within sulfides. Hypogene bornite and chalcocite may have significantly different trace element geochemical signatures from secondary (supergene) bornite.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-10-17
    Description: Sphalerite is an important host mineral for a wide range of minor and trace elements. We have used laser-ablation inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (LA-ICPMS) techniques to investigate the distribution of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ga, Ge, In, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn and Tl in samples from 26 ore deposits, including specimens with wt.% levels of Mn, Cd, In, Sn and Hg. This technique provides accurate trace element data, confirming that Cd, Co, Ga, Ge, In, Mn, Sn, As and Tl are present in solid solution. The concentrations of most elements vary over several orders of magnitude between deposits and in some cases between single samples from a given deposit. Sphalerite is characterized by a specific range of Cd ( typically 0.2- 1.0 wt.%) in each deposit. Higher Cd concentrations are rare; spot analyses on samples from skarn at Baisoara (Romania) show up to 13.2 wt.% (Cd2+ 〈--+ Zn2+ substitution). The LA-ICPMS technique also allows for identification of other elements, notably Pb, Sb and Bi, mostly as micro-inclusions of minerals carrying those elements, and not as solid solution. Silver may occur both as solid solution and as micro-inclusions. Sphalerite can also incorporate minor amounts of As and Se, and possibly Au (e.g., Magura epithermal Au, Romania). Manganese enrichment (up to 􀁝4 wt.%) does not appear to enhance incorporation of other elements. Sphalerite from Toyoha (Japan) features superimposed zoning. Indium-sphalerite (up to 6.7 wt.% In) coexists with Sn-sphalerite (up to 2.3 wt.%). Indium concentration correlates with Cu, corroborating coupled ( Cu +In3+) 〈--+ 2Zn2+ substitution. Tin, however, correlates with Ag, suggesting (2Ag +Sn4+) 〈--+ 3Zn2+ coupled substitution. Germanium-bearing sphalerite from Tres Marias (Mexico) contains several hundred ppm Ge, correlating with Fe. We see no evidence of coupled substitution for incorporation of Ge. Accordingly, we postulate that Ge may be present as Ge2+ rather than Ge4+. Trace element concentrations in different deposit types vary because fractionation of a given element into sphalerite is influenced by crystallization temperature, metal source and the amount of sphalerite in the ore. Epithermal and some skarn deposits have higher concentrations of most elements in solid solution. The presence of discrete minerals containing In, Ga, Ge, etc. also contribute to the observed variance in measured concentrations within sphalerite.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-06-01
    Description: Silicate-sulfide liquid immiscibility in mantle-derived magmas has important control on the budget of siderophile and chalcophile metals, and is considered to be instrumental in the origin orthomagmatic sulfide deposits. Data on primitive sulfide melts in natural samples, even those representing most voluminous magmatism in oceanic rifts, are very scarce due to the small size and poor preservation of incipient sulfide melt globules. Here we present the first detailed report of the crystallized sulfides melts in the oceanic picrites of the (presumably) Cretaceous age Kamchatsky Mys ophiolite complex in Eastern Kamchatka (Far East Russia). Sulfide melts are present in three forms; (1) as inclusions in olivine (87.1–89.6 mol% Fo), (2) interstitial to the groundmass minerals (clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and Ti-magnetite) of studied picrites, and (3) as daughter phases in silicate melt inclusions hosted by olivine and Cr-spinel phenocrysts. The sulfide melt inclusions in olivine and the groundmass of studied rocks are composed of several sulfide phases that correspond to the monosulfide (Fe–Ni; Mss) and intermediate (Fe–Cu–Ni; Iss) solid solutions. Several 〈0.5 μm Pd–Sn, Pt–Ag, and Au–Ag phases are recorded within the matrix sulfides, commonly along phase boundaries and fractures. Major elements (S, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co), platinum group elements (PGE), and gold analyzed in the homogenized olivine-hosted sulfide melt inclusions, and phases identified in the matrix sulfides record the range of magmatic sulfide compositions. The most primitive sulfide liquids are notably enriched in Ni and Cu [(Ni+Cu)/Fe, at% 〉 0.5], continuously evolve with crystallization of (e.g., increasing Cu/Ni and Au/PGE) and demonstrate metal fractionation between Mss and Iss. Although the compositional systematics found in this study are consistent with those previously recorded, the compositions of individual sulfide phases are strongly affected by the noble metal (PGE, Au) “nuggets” that exsolve at subsolidus temperatures and form during serpentinization of the rocks. We conclude that the budget of noble metals in the studied picrites is controlled by sulfides, but the abundances of Pt and Au are influenced by mobility in post-magmatic alteration. Our data can be also used for modeling sulfide saturation at crustal pressures and understanding behavior of the noble metals in primitive oceanic magmas.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-21
    Description: A new olivine reference material – MongOL Sh11‐2 – for in situ analysis has been prepared from a central portion of a large (20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm) mantle peridotite xenolith from a ~ 0.5 Ma old basaltic breccia at Shavaryn‐Tsaram, Tariat region, central Mongolia. The xenolith is a fertile mantle lherzolite with minimal signs of alteration. Approximately 10 g of 0.5 to 2 mm gem quality olivine fragments were separated under binocular microscope and analysed by EPMA, LA‐ICP‐MS, SIMS and bulk analytical methods (ID ICP‐MS for Mg and Fe, XRF, ICP‐MS) for major, minor and trace elements at six institutions worldwide. The results show that the olivine fragments are sufficiently homogeneous with respect to major (Mg, Fe, Si) and minor and trace elements. Significant inhomogeneity was revealed only for phosphorus (homogeneity index of 12.4), whereas Li, Na, Al, Sc, Ti and Cr show minor inhomogeneity (homogeneity index of 1–2). The presence of some mineral and fluid‐melt micro‐inclusions may be responsible for the inconsistency in mass fractions obtained by in situ and bulk analytical methods for Al, Cu, Sr, Zr, Ga, Dy and Ho. Here we report reference and information values for twenty‐seven major, minor and trace elements.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-06-01
    Description: The banded iron formation (BIF)-hosted iron ore deposits in the lower greenstone succession of the Koolyanobbing greenstone belt, 50 km north of Southern Cross in Western Australia, are a ~200 Mt high-grade Fe (〉58%) pre-mining resource and represents one of the most important iron ore districts in the Yilgarn craton. Four hypogene alteration (ore-forming) stages and one supergene upgrading event took place: (1) During ore stage 1, LREE-depleted, transition metal-enriched, Mg-Fe (±Ca) carbonates replaced quartz in BIFs. The deposit-scale alteration was most likely induced by devolatilization of sea-floor–altered, Ca-Si–depleted mafic rocks in the vicinity of the BIF during early regional (syn-D1), very low to low-grade metamorphism and was most strongly developed on reactivated BIF-basalt contacts. (2) Ore stage 2 involved the formation of patchy magnetite ore by a syn-D2 to -D4 dissolution of early carbonate. Enrichment of Fe2O3total in magnetite iron ore was by a factor of 2 to 2.4, and compatible trace elements in magnetite, such as Ga, V, and Al, were immobile. A subdeposit-scale ferroan talc-footprint proximal to magnetite iron ore in the largest deposit (K deposit) was associated with ore stage 2 and resulted from dissolution of magnesite due to reaction with silica in the BIF under greenschist facies conditions and potentially high fluid/rock ratio. (3) Magnetite growth, during ore stage 3, forming granular magnetite-martite ore is related to a subsequent hydrothermal event, occurring locally throughout the belt, especially in D2b faults. (4) Ore stage 4 was associated with Fe-Ca-P-(L)REE-Y–enriched hydrothermal fluids, possibly from a magmatic source such as the postmetamorphic Lake Seabrook granite that crops out about 10 km west of the Koolyanobbing deposits and at the southern margin of the greenstone belt. These Ca-enriched fluids interacted with distal metamorphosed mafic rock and influenced the BIF-ore system in a small number of deposits. They were channelled through regional D4 faults and caused specularite-dolomite-quartz alteration, resulting in Fe grades of up to 68%. (5) Supergene upgrade (ore stage 5) by (further) gangue leaching in the weathering zone was most effective in carbonate-altered BIFs and magnetite ore. This process, together with supergene martitization and goethite replacement of magnetite, led to the formation of high-grade, locally (at K deposit) high P goethite-martite ore. At Koolyanobbing, the two geochemically distinct stages of Archean carbonate alteration clearly controlled the formation of hypogene magnetite-specularite-martite–rich ore and recent supergene modification, including the further upgrade of Fe ore.
    Print ISSN: 0361-0128
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2010-05-01
    Description: The Afar Depression offers a rare opportunity to study the geodynamic evolution of a rift system from continental rifting to sea floor spreading. This study presents geochemical data for crustal and mantle xenoliths and their alkaline host basalts from the region. The basalts have enriched REE patterns, OIB-like trace element characteristics, and a limited range in isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70336–0.70356, ε _Nd = +6.6 to +7.0, and ε _Hf = +10.0 to +10.7). In terms of trace elements and Sr–Nd isotopes, they are similar to basalts from the Hanish and Zubair islands in the southern Red Sea and are thus interpreted to be melts from the Afar mantle. The gabbroic crustal xenoliths vary widely in isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70437–0.70791, ε _Nd = −8.1 to +2.5, and ε _Hf = −10.5 to +4.9), and their trace element characteristics match those of Neoproterozoic rocks from the Arabian–Nubian Shield and modern arc rocks, suggesting that the lower crust beneath the Afar Depression contains Neoproterozoic mafic igneous rocks. Ultramafic mantle xenoliths from Assab contain primary assemblages of fresh ol + opx + cpx + sp ± pl, with no alteration or hydrous minerals. They equilibrated at 870–1,040°C and follow a steep geothermal gradient consistent with the tectonic environment of the Afar Depression. The systematic variations in major and trace elements among the Assab mantle xenoliths together with their isotopic compositions suggest that these rocks are not mantle residues but rather series of layered cumulate sills that crystallized from a relatively enriched picritic melt related to the Afar plume that was emplaced before the eruption of the host basalts. ©2009 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-009-0451-0" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-12-01
    Description: This study investigates partitioning of elements between immiscible aluminosilicate and borosilicate liquids using three synthetic mixtures doped with 32 trace elements. In order to get a good spatial separation of immiscible liquids, we employed a high-temperature centrifuge. Experiments were performed at 1,050–1,150°C, 1 atm, in sealed Fe and Pt containers. Quenched products were analysed by electron microprobe and LA ICP-MS. Nernst partition coefficients ( D ’s) between the Fe-rich and Si-rich aluminosilicate immiscible liquids are the highest for Zn (3.3) and Fe (2.6) and the lowest for Rb and K (0.4–0.5). The plots of D values against ionic potential Z/r in all the compositions show a convex upward trend, which is typical also for element partitioning between immiscible silicate and salt melts. The results bear upon the speciation and structural position of elements in multicomponent silicate liquids. The ferrobasalt–rhyolite liquid immiscibility is observed in evolved basaltic magmas, and may play an important role in large gabbroic intrusions, such as Skaergaard, and during the generation of unusual lavas, such as ferropicrites. ©2006 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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