Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an ubiquitous nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix in all mammalian connective tissues. Along with the age growth, HA will lose its N -acetyl groups in vivo; however, the significance of this physiological process remains largely unknown. Herein, three highly N -deacetylated HAs (dHAs), dHA-5 kDa (Mw: 5 kDa, DD: 100%), dHA-16 kDa (Mw: 16 kDa, DD: 94%) and dHA-110 kDa (Mw: 110 kDa, DD: 72%), were generated after hydrazinolysis. Their capability in the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was compared with that of their respective HAs. Our results demonstrated that both HAs and dHAs could activate the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-B) transcription factor in APCs and induced cytokine production through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 pathway. Notably, the capacity of dHAs in cytokine induction was much lower than that of HAs. In addition, the TLR-2 pathway was much involved following the appearance of zwitterionic motifs in dHAs. Thus, our findings highlight that N-deacetylation renders HA divergences in immune response, which might be implicated in age-induced functional change in endogenous glycosaminoglycans due to the structural modification in vivo.