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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-04-16
    Description: CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) systems are a bacterial defence against invading foreign nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages or exogenous plasmids. These systems use an array of small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) consisting of repetitive sequences flanking unique spacers to recognize their targets, and conserved Cas proteins to mediate target degradation. Recent studies have suggested that these systems may have broader functions in bacterial physiology, and it is unknown if they regulate expression of endogenous genes. Here we demonstrate that the Cas protein Cas9 of Francisella novicida uses a unique, small, CRISPR/Cas-associated RNA (scaRNA) to repress an endogenous transcript encoding a bacterial lipoprotein. As bacterial lipoproteins trigger a proinflammatory innate immune response aimed at combating pathogens, CRISPR/Cas-mediated repression of bacterial lipoprotein expression is critical for F. novicida to dampen this host response and promote virulence. Because Cas9 proteins are highly enriched in pathogenic and commensal bacteria, our work indicates that CRISPR/Cas-mediated gene regulation may broadly contribute to the regulation of endogenous bacterial genes, particularly during the interaction of such bacteria with eukaryotic hosts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651764/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651764/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sampson, Timothy R -- Saroj, Sunil D -- Llewellyn, Anna C -- Tzeng, Yih-Ling -- Weiss, David S -- R56 AI061031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI087673/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56-AI061031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56-AI87673/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54-AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 May 9;497(7448):254-7. doi: 10.1038/nature12048. Epub 2013 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Program, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23584588" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Gammaproteobacteria/genetics/*immunology/metabolism/*pathogenicity ; Genes, Bacterial/genetics ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology ; *Immune Evasion ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Bacterial/genetics/metabolism ; Time Factors ; Toll-Like Receptor 2/immunology/metabolism ; Virulence/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1990-04-27
    Description: The nitrogen regulatory protein NtrC of enteric bacteria activates transcription of the glnA gene by catalyzing isomerization of closed complexes between RNA polymerase and the glnA promoter to open complexes. NtrC binds to sites upstream of glnA that have properties of eukaryotic transcriptional enhancers. NtrC-binding sites were found to facilitate open complex formation when these sites and the glnA promoter were located on different rings of a singly linked catenane, but not when the two rings were decatenated. The results provide evidence that NtrC contacts RNA polymerase-promoter complexes in a process mediated by formation of a DNA loop. NtrC-binding sites serve to tether NtrC near the glnA promoter, thereby increasing the frequency of collisions between NtrC and polymerase-promoter complexes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wedel, A -- Weiss, D S -- Popham, D -- Droge, P -- Kustu, S -- GM 38361/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1990 Apr 27;248(4954):486-90.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Berkeley 94720.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1970441" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; DNA Transposable Elements ; DNA, Bacterial/metabolism ; DNA, Superhelical/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase/*genetics ; Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism ; PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins ; Plasmids ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Templates, Genetic ; *Trans-Activators ; *Transcription Factors ; *Transcription, Genetic ; Transposases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2004-03-06
    Description: Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial granules fuse with the phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria. NETs are abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human appendicitis, two examples of acute inflammation. NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds microorganisms, prevents them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of antimicrobial agents to degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brinkmann, Volker -- Reichard, Ulrike -- Goosmann, Christian -- Fauler, Beatrix -- Uhlemann, Yvonne -- Weiss, David S -- Weinrauch, Yvette -- Zychlinsky, Arturo -- AI037720/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 5;303(5663):1532-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Microscopy Core Facility, Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Schumannstrasse 21/22, 10117 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15001782" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Appendicitis/immunology ; Bacterial Proteins/metabolism ; Blood Bactericidal Activity ; Cytochalasin D/pharmacology ; Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism ; DNA/analysis/metabolism ; Dysentery, Bacillary/immunology ; Endopeptidases/metabolism ; Histones/analysis/metabolism ; Humans ; *Immunity, Innate ; Leukocyte Elastase/analysis/metabolism ; Microscopy, Electron ; *Neutrophil Activation ; Neutrophils/chemistry/*immunology/physiology/ultrastructure ; Phagocytosis ; Rabbits ; Salmonella typhimurium/immunology/*physiology ; Shigella flexneri/immunology/*physiology ; Staphylococcus aureus/immunology/*physiology ; Virulence Factors/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2004-07-31
    Description: We report the observation of a one-dimensional (1D) Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas of bosons moving freely in 1D. Although TG gas bosons are strongly interacting, they behave very much like noninteracting fermions. We enter the TG regime with cold rubidium-87 atoms by trapping them with a combination of two light traps. By changing the trap intensities, and hence the atomic interaction strength, the atoms can be made to act either like a Bose-Einstein condensate or like a TG gas. We measure the total 1D energy and the length of the gas. With no free parameters and over a wide range of coupling strengths, our data fit the exact solution for the ground state of a 1D Bose gas.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kinoshita, Toshiya -- Wenger, Trevor -- Weiss, David S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Aug 20;305(5687):1125-8. Epub 2004 Jul 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Physics Department, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15284454" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The yellow fever vaccine YF-17D is one of the most successful vaccines ever developed in humans. Despite its efficacy and widespread use in more than 600 million people, the mechanisms by which it stimulates protective immunity remain poorly understood. Recent studies using systems biology approaches in humans have revealed that YF-17D-induced early expression of general control nonderepressible 2 kinase (GCN2) in the blood strongly correlates with the magnitude of the later CD8(+) T cell response. We demonstrate a key role for virus-induced GCN2 activation in programming dendritic cells to initiate autophagy and enhanced antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results reveal an unappreciated link between virus-induced integrated stress response in dendritic cells and the adaptive immune response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4048998/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Li, Shuzhao -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Maddur, Mohan S -- Park, Youngja -- Jones, Dean P -- Chappert, Pascal -- Davoust, Jean -- Weiss, David S -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Ron, David -- Pulendran, Bali -- 084812/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084812/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- N01 AI50019/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI50025/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011132/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057157/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI057160/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jan 17;343(6168):313-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1246829. Epub 2013 Dec 5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24310610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antigen Presentation ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Line ; Cricetinae ; Dendritic Cells/enzymology/*immunology ; Enzyme Activation ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Yellow Fever Vaccine/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 32.00 ; 35.00 ; 42.50
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The recoil of an atom due to the absorption of up to 64 photons is measured, using laser-cooled cesium atoms which are made to interfere in an atomic fountain. Measurement of the photon recoil allows a determination of ℏ/m Cs, and hence the fine-structure constant. The measurement is described and a detailed theoretical and experimental study of potential systematic errors is presented. A relative precision in the photon recoil measurement of 0.1 ppm is obtained in two hours of data collection. The measurement is currently 0.85 ppm below the accepted value of ℏ/m Cs. We cannot now formally ascribe a systematic error, but suspect that the bulk of the discrepancy is due to imperfections of the interferometer beams used to induce the Raman transitions.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The receptive fields of “complex” neurons within area 18 of the cerebral cortex of the cat were determined by a computer-assisted method using a moving light bar substantially shorter than the long diameter of the receptive field as a visual stimulus. The visual cells repeatedly generated nerve impulses when the stimulus crossed well-defined “active points” within their receptive fields. Outside of these active points, the cells remained silent. It is suggested that the receptive fields are formed by a discontinuous accumulation of such active points. When the electrical activities of two neighbouring visual neurons are recorded simultaneously, their active points do not coincide. In addition, some active points were located outside the most prominent excitatory part of the receptive field of the studied cells. Individual visual cells typically differ in the number and distribution of active points. Since these cells best respond to a stimulus moving in a certain direction, it is suggested that they may act as direction of movement and/or velocity detectors. Alternate firing of a number of neighboring cells connected to a distributed pattern of peripheral receptors may form a system which is able to code for velocity and direction of the moving stimulus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Electrical activity of a population of visually responsive cells located in the vicinity of a single functionally defined neuron was recorded in the area 18 of the cat's cerebral cortex with a single tungsten microelectrode. The correlograms calculated from the mass activity record showed an existence of a rhythmic neuronal firing with an average interval near to 3 ms. When the system was activated by a visual stimulus, a line at an optimal angle moving in an optimal direction, the rhythmic activity became regular, acquiring an oscillatory sinusoidal character. This rhythmic pattern cannot be easily recognized when the activity of a single neuron is recorded. It is possible that such rhythmic activity involving large numbers of neurons contributes to the recognition of the velocity and position of the visual stimulus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 3 (1970), S. 145-154 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The low resolution mass spectra of several di-, tri-and tetra-methylated cyclobutanones were determined at high and low ionizing voltages. The spectra are discussed in terms of the competition between loss of CO or loss of a ketene from the molecular ion of the cyclobutanone. The mass spectral results are correlated with the known photochemical behavior of the cyclobutanones and possible mechanistic implications are discussed.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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