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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-12
    Description: Understanding the mechanisms that generate variation is a common pursuit unifying the life sciences. Bacteria represent an especially striking puzzle, because closely related strains possess radically different metabolic and ecological capabilities. Differences in protein repertoire arising from gene transfer are currently considered the primary mechanism underlying phenotypic plasticity in bacteria....
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1991-01-04
    Description: An expression cloning strategy was devised to isolate the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) receptor complementary DNA. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, which secrete this epithelial cell-specific mitogen, were transfected with a keratinocyte expression complementary DNA library. Among several transformed foci identified, one demonstrated the acquisition of specific high-affinity KGF binding sites. The pattern of binding competition by related fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) indicated that this receptor had high affinity for acidic FGF as well as KGF. The rescued 4.2-kilobase complementary DNA was shown to encode a predicted membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase related to but distinct from the basic FGF receptor. This expression cloning approach may be generally applicable to the isolation of genes that constitute limiting steps in mitogenic signaling pathways.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Miki, T -- Fleming, T P -- Bottaro, D P -- Rubin, J S -- Ron, D -- Aaronson, S A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1991 Jan 4;251(4989):72-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1846048" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding, Competitive ; Cell Line ; *Cloning, Molecular ; DNA/*genetics ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism ; Fibroblasts/metabolism ; *Gene Expression ; Growth Substances/metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Plasmids ; Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2 ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*genetics/metabolism ; *Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Transfection ; Transformation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2006-07-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ron, David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Jul 7;313(5783):52-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Skirball Institute, New York University Medical Center, 540 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. ron@saturn.med.nyu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16825557" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cytosol/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/metabolism ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; Endoribonucleases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Protein Biosynthesis ; *Protein Folding ; Protein Sorting Signals/physiology ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; *RNA Stability ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2011-02-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ron, David -- Ito, Koreaki -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Feb 4;331(6017):543-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1202075.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Metabolic Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK. dr360@medschl.cam.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292960" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; Escherichia coli/genetics/metabolism ; Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Intracellular Membranes/metabolism ; *Protein Biosynthesis ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; *RNA Splicing ; RNA, Messenger/*genetics/metabolism ; Ribosomes/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Unfolded Protein Response
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-03-10
    Description: Many biological processes are regulated through the selective dephosphorylation of proteins. Protein serine-threonine phosphatases are assembled from catalytic subunits bound to diverse regulatory subunits that provide substrate specificity and subcellular localization. We describe a small molecule, guanabenz, that bound to a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1, PPP1R15A/GADD34, selectively disrupting the stress-induced dephosphorylation of the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). Without affecting the related PPP1R15B-phosphatase complex and constitutive protein synthesis, guanabenz prolonged eIF2alpha phosphorylation in human stressed cells, adjusting the protein production rates to levels manageable by available chaperones. This favored protein folding and thereby rescued cells from protein misfolding stress. Thus, regulatory subunits of phosphatases are drug targets, a property used here to restore proteostasis in stressed cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tsaytler, Pavel -- Harding, Heather P -- Ron, David -- Bertolotti, Anne -- 084812/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_U105185860/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Apr 1;332(6025):91-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1201396. Epub 2011 Mar 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21385720" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/*pharmacology ; Catalytic Domain/drug effects ; Cell Line ; Clonidine/pharmacology ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects/metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism ; Guanabenz/*pharmacology ; HeLa Cells ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Molecular Chaperones/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects ; Protein Folding/drug effects ; Protein Phosphatase 1/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein Subunits/drug effects/metabolism ; Proteins/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Tunicamycin
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-11-26
    Description: The vast majority of proteins that a cell secretes or displays on its surface first enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they fold and assemble. Only properly assembled proteins advance from the ER to the cell surface. To ascertain fidelity in protein folding, cells regulate the protein-folding capacity in the ER according to need. The ER responds to the burden of unfolded proteins in its lumen (ER stress) by activating intracellular signal transduction pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Together, at least three mechanistically distinct branches of the UPR regulate the expression of numerous genes that maintain homeostasis in the ER or induce apoptosis if ER stress remains unmitigated. Recent advances shed light on mechanistic complexities and on the role of the UPR in numerous diseases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Walter, Peter -- Ron, David -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Nov 25;334(6059):1081-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1209038.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. peter@walterlab.ucsf.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22116877" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Activating Transcription Factor 6/metabolism ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; *Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress ; Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation ; Endoribonucleases/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Proteolysis ; Signal Transduction ; *Unfolded Protein Response ; Yeasts/genetics/metabolism ; eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2000-01-29
    Description: Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound TRAF2, an adaptor protein that couples plasma membrane receptors to JNK activation. Dominant-negative TRAF2 inhibited activation of JNK by IRE1. Activation of JNK by endogenous signals initiated in the ER proceeds by a pathway similar to that initiated by cell surface receptors in response to extracellular signals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Urano, F -- Wang, X -- Bertolotti, A -- Zhang, Y -- Chung, P -- Harding, H P -- Ron, D -- DK47119/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ES08681/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2000 Jan 28;287(5453):664-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, Departments of Medicine, Cell Biology and the Kaplan Cancer Center, New York University Medical School, New York, NY 10016, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10650002" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; Endoribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; Gene Targeting ; Humans ; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ; *Membrane Proteins ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Multienzyme Complexes/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Rats ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2 ; Thapsigargin/pharmacology ; Two-Hybrid System Techniques ; eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2005-02-12
    Description: Most protein phosphatases have little intrinsic substrate specificity, making selective pharmacological inhibition of specific dephosphorylation reactions a challenging problem. In a screen for small molecules that protect cells from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, we identified salubrinal, a selective inhibitor of cellular complexes that dephosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2alpha). Salubrinal also blocks eIF2alpha dephosphorylation mediated by a herpes simplex virus protein and inhibits viral replication. These results suggest that selective chemical inhibitors of eIF2alpha dephosphorylation may be useful in diseases involving ER stress or viral infection. More broadly, salubrinal demonstrates the feasibility of selective pharmacological targeting of cellular dephosphorylation events.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boyce, Michael -- Bryant, Kevin F -- Jousse, Celine -- Long, Kai -- Harding, Heather P -- Scheuner, Donalyn -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Ma, Dawei -- Coen, Donald M -- Ron, David -- Yuan, Junying -- AI19838/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI26077/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DDK42394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK47119/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- ES08681/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- GM64703/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS35138/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37-AG012859/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2005 Feb 11;307(5711):935-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15705855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Differentiation ; Apoptosis/*drug effects ; Cell Cycle Proteins ; Cell Line ; Cinnamates/*pharmacology/toxicity ; *Cytoprotection ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/*metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/*metabolism ; Genes, Reporter ; Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects/physiology ; Keratitis, Herpetic/drug therapy/virology ; Male ; Mice ; Oxazoles/pharmacology/toxicity ; PC12 Cells ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Protein Phosphatase 1 ; Proteins/metabolism ; Rats ; Thiourea/*analogs & derivatives/*pharmacology/toxicity ; Tunicamycin/pharmacology ; Viral Proteins/metabolism ; Virus Replication/drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1996-05-31
    Description: CHOP, a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, mediates effects of cellular stress on growth and differentiation. It accumulates under conditions of stress and undergoes inducible phosphorylation on two adjacent serine residues (78 and 81). In vitro, CHOP is phosphorylated on these residues by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). A specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, SB203580, abolished the stress-inducible in vivo phosphorylation of CHOP. Phosphorylation of CHOP on these residues enhanced its ability to function as a transcriptional activator and was also required for the full inhibitory effect of CHOP on adipose cell differentiation. CHOP thus serves as a link between a specific stress-activated protein kinase, p38, and cellular growth and differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, X Z -- Ron, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1996 May 31;272(5266):1347-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University Medical Center, 10016, NY, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8650547" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Adipocytes/cytology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Culture Media ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Imidazoles/pharmacology ; Methyl Methanesulfonate/pharmacology ; Mice ; *Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphorylation ; Pyridines/pharmacology ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Transcription Factor CHOP ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcriptional Activation ; p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1989-08-18
    Description: Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a human mitogen that is specific for epithelial cells. The complementary DNA sequence of KGF demonstrates that it is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. The KGF transcript was present in stromal cells derived from epithelial tissues. By comparison with the expression of other epithelial cell mitogens, only KGF, among known human growth factors, has the properties of a stromal mediator of epithelial cell proliferation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Finch, P W -- Rubin, J S -- Miki, T -- Ron, D -- Aaronson, S A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1989 Aug 18;245(4919):752-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2475908" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Division ; Codon ; DNA/genetics/isolation & purification ; Epithelial Cells ; Epithelium/analysis/metabolism ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 7 ; *Fibroblast Growth Factors/genetics ; Fibroblasts/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Growth Substances/*genetics/physiology ; Humans ; Mesoderm/metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Oligonucleotide Probes ; RNA/analysis ; Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid ; Skin/analysis ; Tissue Distribution ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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