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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Delin -- Garcia, Heriberto -- Huang, Wei -- Tran, Duong D -- Jain, Ankita D -- Yi, Dong Hoon -- Gong, Zheng -- Jech, J Michael -- Godo, Olav Rune -- Makris, Nicholas C -- Ratilal, Purnima -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):366-70. doi: 10.1038/nature16960. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Ocean Acoustics and Ecosystem Sensing, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Laboratory for Undersea Remote Sensing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. ; Institute of Marine Research, Post Office Box 1870, Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustics ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; Atlantic Ocean ; Diet/veterinary ; Ecosystem ; *Feeding Behavior ; Fishes/*physiology ; Male ; Mammals/*physiology ; *Predatory Behavior ; Time Factors ; *Vocalization, Animal ; Whales/physiology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-07-19
    Description: Author(s): I. Nishi, M. Ishikado, S. Ideta, W. Malaeb, T. Yoshida, A. Fujimori, Y. Kotani, M. Kubota, K. Ono, M. Yi, D. H. Lu, R. Moore, Z.-X. Shen, A. Iyo, K. Kihou, H. Kito, H. Eisaki, S. Shamoto, and R. Arita We have performed an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the iron-based superconductor PrFeAsO 0.7 and examined the Fermi surfaces and band dispersions near the Fermi level. Heavily hole-doped electronic states have been observed due to the polar nature of the cleaved surfaces.... [Phys. Rev. B 84, 014504] Published Mon Jul 18, 2011
    Keywords: Superfluidity and superconductivity
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-03-28
    Description: Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were measured in water samples collected annually from a representative suite of 50 lakes in northeastern Alberta over a nine-year period, and are interpreted using a steady-state isotope mass balance model to determine water yield and runoff ratios for the lake watersheds, and residence time of the lakes. This isotopic perspective on hydrology of the region provides new insight into the role of land cover, watershed morphometry, climatic drivers and permafrost thaw on lakes. Bog cover, permafrost and presence of thaw features in bogs are found to be the dominant hydrologic drivers, although morphometric properties such as elevation, lake area, and drainage basin area are also influential. In addition to quantifying the hydrologic fluxes, the analysis establishes contrasting conditions in more southerly lakes, located in the Stony Mountains and west of Fort McMurray, as compared to more northerly sites in the Birch Mountains, Caribou Mountains and northeast of Fort McMurray, due mainly to contributions from thawing permafrost at the northerly sites. Distinct hydrologic conditions are also noted for Shield systems north of Lake Athabasca where bogs and permafrost are absent. While permafrost thaw is not directly labelled by oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition, isotope mass balance calculations suggest that contributions of up to several hundred millimetres per year are occurring in 14 of the 50 lake watersheds under study. Several of these lakes have water yields in excess of precipitation in some years and regional groups of lakes display significant correlations between water yield and percentage of bogs that have collapsed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0885-6087
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1085
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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