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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2008-08-01
    Description: Reduced fecundity, associated with severe mental disorders, places negative selection pressure on risk alleles and may explain, in part, why common variants have not been found that confer risk of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. Thus, rare variants may account for a larger fraction of the overall genetic risk than previously assumed. In contrast to rare single nucleotide mutations, rare copy number variations (CNVs) can be detected using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. This has led to the identification of CNVs associated with mental retardation and autism. In a genome-wide search for CNVs associating with schizophrenia, we used a population-based sample to identify de novo CNVs by analysing 9,878 transmissions from parents to offspring. The 66 de novo CNVs identified were tested for association in a sample of 1,433 schizophrenia cases and 33,250 controls. Three deletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2 and 15q13.3 showing nominal association with schizophrenia in the first sample (phase I) were followed up in a second sample of 3,285 cases and 7,951 controls (phase II). All three deletions significantly associate with schizophrenia and related psychoses in the combined sample. The identification of these rare, recurrent risk variants, having occurred independently in multiple founders and being subject to negative selection, is important in itself. CNV analysis may also point the way to the identification of additional and more prevalent risk variants in genes and pathways involved in schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2687075/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stefansson, Hreinn -- Rujescu, Dan -- Cichon, Sven -- Pietilainen, Olli P H -- Ingason, Andres -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Sigurdsson, Engilbert -- Sigmundsson, Thordur -- Buizer-Voskamp, Jacobine E -- Hansen, Thomas -- Jakobsen, Klaus D -- Muglia, Pierandrea -- Francks, Clyde -- Matthews, Paul M -- Gylfason, Arnaldur -- Halldorsson, Bjarni V -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E -- Sigurdsson, Asgeir -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Bjornsson, Asgeir -- Mattiasdottir, Sigurborg -- Blondal, Thorarinn -- Haraldsson, Magnus -- Magnusdottir, Brynja B -- Giegling, Ina -- Moller, Hans-Jurgen -- Hartmann, Annette -- Shianna, Kevin V -- Ge, Dongliang -- Need, Anna C -- Crombie, Caroline -- Fraser, Gillian -- Walker, Nicholas -- Lonnqvist, Jouko -- Suvisaari, Jaana -- Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamarie -- Paunio, Tiina -- Toulopoulou, Timi -- Bramon, Elvira -- Di Forti, Marta -- Murray, Robin -- Ruggeri, Mirella -- Vassos, Evangelos -- Tosato, Sarah -- Walshe, Muriel -- Li, Tao -- Vasilescu, Catalina -- Muhleisen, Thomas W -- Wang, August G -- Ullum, Henrik -- Djurovic, Srdjan -- Melle, Ingrid -- Olesen, Jes -- Kiemeney, Lambertus A -- Franke, Barbara -- GROUP -- Sabatti, Chiara -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Kong, Augustine -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Ophoff, Roel A -- Georgi, Alexander -- Rietschel, Marcella -- Werge, Thomas -- Petursson, Hannes -- Goldstein, David B -- Nothen, Markus M -- Peltonen, Leena -- Collier, David A -- St Clair, David -- Stefansson, Kari -- 089061/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- G0901310/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- PDA/02/06/016/Department of Health/United Kingdom -- R01 MH078075/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH71425-01A1/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Sep 11;455(7210):232-6. doi: 10.1038/nature07229.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNS Division, deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18668039" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: China ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Europe ; Gene Dosage/genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genotype ; Humans ; Loss of Heterozygosity ; Models, Genetic ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Psychotic Disorders/genetics ; Schizophrenia/*genetics ; Sequence Deletion/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-07-18
    Description: The prevalence of dementia in the Western world in people over the age of 60 has been estimated to be greater than 5%, about two-thirds of which are due to Alzheimer's disease. The age-specific prevalence of Alzheimer's disease nearly doubles every 5 years after age 65, leading to a prevalence of greater than 25% in those over the age of 90 (ref. 3). Here, to search for low-frequency variants in the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP) gene with a significant effect on the risk of Alzheimer's disease, we studied coding variants in APP in a set of whole-genome sequence data from 1,795 Icelanders. We found a coding mutation (A673T) in the APP gene that protects against Alzheimer's disease and cognitive decline in the elderly without Alzheimer's disease. This substitution is adjacent to the aspartyl protease beta-site in APP, and results in an approximately 40% reduction in the formation of amyloidogenic peptides in vitro. The strong protective effect of the A673T substitution against Alzheimer's disease provides proof of principle for the hypothesis that reducing the beta-cleavage of APP may protect against the disease. Furthermore, as the A673T allele also protects against cognitive decline in the elderly without Alzheimer's disease, the two may be mediated through the same or similar mechanisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jonsson, Thorlakur -- Atwal, Jasvinder K -- Steinberg, Stacy -- Snaedal, Jon -- Jonsson, Palmi V -- Bjornsson, Sigurbjorn -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Sulem, Patrick -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Maloney, Janice -- Hoyte, Kwame -- Gustafson, Amy -- Liu, Yichin -- Lu, Yanmei -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Graham, Robert R -- Huttenlocher, Johanna -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Andreassen, Ole A -- Jonsson, Erik G -- Palotie, Aarno -- Behrens, Timothy W -- Magnusson, Olafur T -- Kong, Augustine -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Watts, Ryan J -- Stefansson, Kari -- HL-102924/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102925/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-102926/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-103010/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Aug 2;488(7409):96-9. doi: 10.1038/nature11283.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22801501" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/*genetics/pathology/physiopathology/prevention & control ; Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/chemistry/*genetics/*metabolism ; Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism ; Cognition/physiology ; Cognition Disorders/*genetics/*physiopathology/prevention & control ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Mutation/*genetics ; Plaque, Amyloid/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2010-10-01
    Description: Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P 〈 0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented among variants that alter amino-acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain approximately 10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to approximately 16% of phenotypic variation (approximately 20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits fully, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that implicate biologically relevant genes and pathways.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955183/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2955183/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lango Allen, Hana -- Estrada, Karol -- Lettre, Guillaume -- Berndt, Sonja I -- Weedon, Michael N -- Rivadeneira, Fernando -- Willer, Cristen J -- Jackson, Anne U -- Vedantam, Sailaja -- Raychaudhuri, Soumya -- Ferreira, Teresa -- Wood, Andrew R -- Weyant, Robert J -- Segre, Ayellet V -- Speliotes, Elizabeth K -- Wheeler, Eleanor -- Soranzo, Nicole -- Park, Ju-Hyun -- Yang, Jian -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Heard-Costa, Nancy L -- Randall, Joshua C -- Qi, Lu -- Vernon Smith, Albert -- Magi, Reedik -- Pastinen, Tomi -- Liang, Liming -- Heid, Iris M -- Luan, Jian'an -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Winkler, Thomas W -- Goddard, Michael E -- Sin Lo, Ken -- Palmer, Cameron -- Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie -- Aulchenko, Yurii S -- Johansson, Asa -- Zillikens, M Carola -- Feitosa, Mary F -- Esko, Tonu -- Johnson, Toby -- Ketkar, Shamika -- Kraft, Peter -- Mangino, Massimo -- Prokopenko, Inga -- Absher, Devin -- Albrecht, Eva -- Ernst, Florian -- Glazer, Nicole L -- Hayward, Caroline -- Hottenga, Jouke-Jan -- Jacobs, Kevin B -- Knowles, Joshua W -- Kutalik, Zoltan -- Monda, Keri L -- Polasek, Ozren -- Preuss, Michael -- Rayner, Nigel W -- Robertson, Neil R -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Tyrer, Jonathan P -- Voight, Benjamin F -- Wiklund, Fredrik -- Xu, Jianfeng -- Zhao, Jing Hua -- Nyholt, Dale R -- Pellikka, Niina -- Perola, Markus -- Perry, John R B -- Surakka, Ida -- Tammesoo, Mari-Liis -- Altmaier, Elizabeth L -- Amin, Najaf -- Aspelund, Thor -- Bhangale, Tushar -- Boucher, Gabrielle -- Chasman, Daniel I -- Chen, Constance -- Coin, Lachlan -- Cooper, Matthew N -- Dixon, Anna L -- Gibson, Quince -- Grundberg, Elin -- Hao, Ke -- Juhani Junttila, M -- Kaplan, Lee M -- Kettunen, Johannes -- Konig, Inke R -- Kwan, Tony -- Lawrence, Robert W -- Levinson, Douglas F -- Lorentzon, Mattias -- McKnight, Barbara -- Morris, Andrew P -- Muller, Martina -- Suh Ngwa, Julius -- Purcell, Shaun -- Rafelt, Suzanne -- Salem, Rany M -- Salvi, Erika -- Sanna, Serena -- Shi, Jianxin -- Sovio, Ulla -- Thompson, John R -- Turchin, Michael C -- Vandenput, Liesbeth -- Verlaan, Dominique J -- Vitart, Veronique -- White, Charles C -- Ziegler, Andreas -- Almgren, Peter -- Balmforth, Anthony J -- Campbell, Harry -- Citterio, Lorena -- De Grandi, Alessandro -- Dominiczak, Anna -- Duan, Jubao -- Elliott, Paul -- Elosua, Roberto -- Eriksson, Johan G -- Freimer, Nelson B -- Geus, Eco J C -- Glorioso, Nicola -- Haiqing, Shen -- Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa -- Havulinna, Aki S -- Hicks, Andrew A -- Hui, Jennie -- Igl, Wilmar -- Illig, Thomas -- Jula, Antti -- Kajantie, Eero -- Kilpelainen, Tuomas O -- Koiranen, Markku -- Kolcic, Ivana -- Koskinen, Seppo -- Kovacs, Peter -- Laitinen, Jaana -- Liu, Jianjun -- Lokki, Marja-Liisa -- Marusic, Ana -- Maschio, Andrea -- Meitinger, Thomas -- Mulas, Antonella -- Pare, Guillaume -- Parker, Alex N -- Peden, John F -- Petersmann, Astrid -- Pichler, Irene -- Pietilainen, Kirsi H -- Pouta, Anneli -- Ridderstrale, Martin -- Rotter, Jerome I -- Sambrook, Jennifer G -- Sanders, Alan R -- Schmidt, Carsten Oliver -- Sinisalo, Juha -- Smit, Jan H -- Stringham, Heather M -- Bragi Walters, G -- Widen, Elisabeth -- Wild, Sarah H -- Willemsen, Gonneke -- Zagato, Laura -- Zgaga, Lina -- Zitting, Paavo -- Alavere, Helene -- Farrall, Martin -- McArdle, Wendy L -- Nelis, Mari -- Peters, Marjolein J -- Ripatti, Samuli -- van Meurs, Joyce B J -- Aben, Katja K -- Ardlie, Kristin G -- Beckmann, Jacques S -- Beilby, John P -- Bergman, Richard N -- Bergmann, Sven -- Collins, Francis S -- Cusi, Daniele -- den Heijer, Martin -- Eiriksdottir, Gudny -- Gejman, Pablo V -- Hall, Alistair S -- Hamsten, Anders -- Huikuri, Heikki V -- Iribarren, Carlos -- Kahonen, Mika -- Kaprio, Jaakko -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Kiemeney, Lambertus -- Kocher, Thomas -- Launer, Lenore J -- Lehtimaki, Terho -- Melander, Olle -- Mosley, Tom H Jr -- Musk, Arthur W -- Nieminen, Markku S -- O'Donnell, Christopher J -- Ohlsson, Claes -- Oostra, Ben -- Palmer, Lyle J -- Raitakari, Olli -- Ridker, Paul M -- Rioux, John D -- Rissanen, Aila -- Rivolta, Carlo -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Shuldiner, Alan R -- Siscovick, David S -- Stumvoll, Michael -- Tonjes, Anke -- Tuomilehto, Jaakko -- van Ommen, Gert-Jan -- Viikari, Jorma -- Heath, Andrew C -- Martin, Nicholas G -- Montgomery, Grant W -- Province, Michael A -- Kayser, Manfred -- Arnold, Alice M -- Atwood, Larry D -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Chanock, Stephen J -- Deloukas, Panos -- Gieger, Christian -- Gronberg, Henrik -- Hall, Per -- Hattersley, Andrew T -- Hengstenberg, Christian -- Hoffman, Wolfgang -- Lathrop, G Mark -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Schreiber, Stefan -- Uda, Manuela -- Waterworth, Dawn -- Wright, Alan F -- Assimes, Themistocles L -- Barroso, Ines -- Hofman, Albert -- Mohlke, Karen L -- Boomsma, Dorret I -- Caulfield, Mark J -- Cupples, L Adrienne -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Fox, Caroline S -- Gudnason, Vilmundur -- Gyllensten, Ulf -- Harris, Tamara B -- Hayes, Richard B -- Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta -- Mooser, Vincent -- Munroe, Patricia B -- Ouwehand, Willem H -- Penninx, Brenda W -- Pramstaller, Peter P -- Quertermous, Thomas -- Rudan, Igor -- Samani, Nilesh J -- Spector, Timothy D -- Volzke, Henry -- Watkins, Hugh -- Wilson, James F -- Groop, Leif C -- Haritunians, Talin -- Hu, Frank B -- Kaplan, Robert C -- Metspalu, Andres -- North, Kari E -- Schlessinger, David -- Wareham, Nicholas J -- Hunter, David J -- O'Connell, Jeffrey R -- Strachan, David P -- Wichmann, H-Erich -- Borecki, Ingrid B -- van Duijn, Cornelia M -- Schadt, Eric E -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Peltonen, Leena -- Uitterlinden, Andre G -- Visscher, Peter M -- Chatterjee, Nilanjan -- Loos, Ruth J F -- Boehnke, Michael -- McCarthy, Mark I -- Ingelsson, Erik -- Lindgren, Cecilia M -- Abecasis, Goncalo R -- Stefansson, Kari -- Frayling, Timothy M -- Hirschhorn, Joel N -- 064890/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 068545/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 068545/Z/02/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 072856/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 072960/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 076113/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 076113/B/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 076113/C/04/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077016/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077016/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079557/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079771/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 079895/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 081682/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 081682/Z/06/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 083270/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 084183/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085301/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 085301/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 086596/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 086596/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 088885/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 091746/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 091746/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 263-MA-410953/PHS HHS/ -- AA014041/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA07535/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA10248/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13320/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13321/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- AA13326/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- CA047988/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA49449/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA50385/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA65725/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA67262/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA87969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CZB/4/276/Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- 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R01-HL088119/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01-HL59367/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH059160/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH59565/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH59566/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH59571/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH59586/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH59587/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH59588/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH60870/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH60879/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH61675/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH63706/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH67257/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH79469/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01-MH81800/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005581/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005581-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RL1 MH083268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RL1 MH083268-05/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- RL1-MH083268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32-HG00040/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA049449/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA049449-21/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA098233/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 CA098233-08/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062370/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062370-08/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 DK062418/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM074518-05/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004399-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG004402-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005214/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG005214-02/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL069757/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL069757-10/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL072515-06/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL080295-04/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084729/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084729-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL084756-03/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH079469/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH079469-03/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH079470/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH079470-03/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01-CA098233/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U01-GM074518/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-HG004399/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HG004402/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL080295/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL084756/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL72515/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- U01-MH79469/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01-MH79470/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54-RR020278/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- UL1-RR025005/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- Z01-AG00675/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- Z01-AG007380/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- Z01-HG000024/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2010 Oct 14;467(7317):832-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09410. Epub 2010 Sep 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genetics of Complex Traits, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Exeter EX1 2LU, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20881960" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Body Height/*genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics ; Genetic Loci/*genetics ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; Humans ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways/*genetics ; Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics ; Phenotype ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2008-03-18
    Description: Common human diseases result from the interplay of many genes and environmental factors. Therefore, a more integrative biology approach is needed to unravel the complexity and causes of such diseases. To elucidate the complexity of common human diseases such as obesity, we have analysed the expression of 23,720 transcripts in large population-based blood and adipose tissue cohorts comprehensively assessed for various phenotypes, including traits related to clinical obesity. In contrast to the blood expression profiles, we observed a marked correlation between gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity-related traits. Genome-wide linkage and association mapping revealed a highly significant genetic component to gene expression traits, including a strong genetic effect of proximal (cis) signals, with 50% of the cis signals overlapping between the two tissues profiled. Here we demonstrate an extensive transcriptional network constructed from the human adipose data that exhibits significant overlap with similar network modules constructed from mouse adipose data. A core network module in humans and mice was identified that is enriched for genes involved in the inflammatory and immune response and has been found to be causally associated to obesity-related traits.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Emilsson, Valur -- Thorleifsson, Gudmar -- Zhang, Bin -- Leonardson, Amy S -- Zink, Florian -- Zhu, Jun -- Carlson, Sonia -- Helgason, Agnar -- Walters, G Bragi -- Gunnarsdottir, Steinunn -- Mouy, Magali -- Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur -- Eiriksdottir, Gudrun H -- Bjornsdottir, Gyda -- Reynisdottir, Inga -- Gudbjartsson, Daniel -- Helgadottir, Anna -- Jonasdottir, Aslaug -- Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg -- Styrkarsdottir, Unnur -- Gretarsdottir, Solveig -- Magnusson, Kristinn P -- Stefansson, Hreinn -- Fossdal, Ragnheidur -- Kristjansson, Kristleifur -- Gislason, Hjortur G -- Stefansson, Tryggvi -- Leifsson, Bjorn G -- Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur -- Lamb, John R -- Gulcher, Jeffrey R -- Reitman, Marc L -- Kong, Augustine -- Schadt, Eric E -- Stefansson, Kari -- England -- Nature. 2008 Mar 27;452(7186):423-8. doi: 10.1038/nature06758. Epub 2008 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉deCODE genetics, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18344981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/metabolism ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Blood/metabolism ; Body Mass Index ; Cohort Studies ; European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics ; Female ; *Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Iceland ; Lod Score ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Obesity/*genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics ; Sample Size ; Waist-Hip Ratio
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-11-27
    Description: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder with a strong genetic component. A number of common sequence variants have been found to associate with serum creatinine (SCr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or CKD. We imputed 24 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions identified by whole-genome sequencing of 2230 Icelanders into 81 656 chip-typed individuals and 112 630 relatives of genotyped individuals over the age of 18 with SCr measurements. The large set of sequenced individuals allowed accurate imputation of variants to a minor allele frequency (MAF) of 0.1%. We tested the imputed variants for association with SCr. In addition to replicating established loci, we discovered missense and loss-of-function variants associating with SCr in three solute carriers ( SLC6A19 , SLC25A45  and SLC47A1 ) and two E3 ubiquitin ligases ( RNF186 and RNF128 ). All the variants are within coding sequences and all but one are rare (MAF 〈2%) with SCr effects between 0.085 and 0.129 standard deviations. These rare variants have a larger effect on SCr than previously reported common variants, explaining 0.5% of the variability of SCr in Icelanders in addition to the 1% already accounted for. We tested the five variants associating with SCr for association with CKD in an Icelandic sample of 15 594 cases and 291 428 controls. Three of the variants also associated with CKD. These variants may either affect kidney function or creatinine synthesis and excretion. Of note were four mutations in SLC6A19 that associate with reduced SCr, three of which have been shown to cause Hartnup disease.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-09-20
    Description: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of urinary bladder cancer (UBC) have yielded common variants at 12 loci that associate with risk of the disease. We report here the results of a GWAS of UBC including 1670 UBC cases and 90 180 controls, followed by replication analysis in additional 5266 UBC cases and 10 456 controls. We tested a dataset containing 34.2 million variants, generated by imputation based on whole-genome sequencing of 2230 Icelanders. Several correlated variants at 20p12, represented by rs62185668, show genome-wide significant association with UBC after combining discovery and replication results (OR = 1.19, P = 1.5 x 10 –11 for rs62185668-A, minor allele frequency = 23.6%). The variants are located in a non-coding region approximately 300 kb upstream from the JAG1 gene, an important component of the Notch signaling pathways that may be oncogenic or tumor suppressive in several forms of cancer. Our results add to the growing number of UBC risk variants discovered through GWAS.
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: To search for new sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conducted a genome-wide association study of 38.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small indels identified through whole-genome sequencing of 2230 Icelanders. We imputed genotypes for 4208 BCC patients and 109 408 controls using Illumina SNP chip typing data, carried out association tests and replicated the findings in independent population samples. We found new BCC susceptibility loci at TGM3 (rs214782[G], P = 5.5 x 10 –17 , OR = 1.29) and RGS22 (rs7006527[C], P = 8.7 x 10 –13 , OR = 0.77). TGM3 encodes transglutaminase type 3, which plays a key role in production of the cornified envelope during epidermal differentiation.
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    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
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  • 8
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    Schumann, G., Coin, L. J., Lourdusamy, A., Charoen, P., Berger, K. H., Stacey, D., Desrivieres, S., Aliev, F. A., Khan, A. A., Amin, N., Aulchenko, Y. S., Bakalkin, G., Bakker, S. J., Balkau, B., Beulens, J. W., Bilbao, A., de Boer, R. A., Beury, D., Bots, M. L., Breetvelt, E. J., Cauchi, S., Cavalcanti-Proenca, C., Chambers, J. C., Clarke, T.-K., Dahmen, N., de Geus, E. J., Dick, D., Ducci, F., Easton, A., Edenberg, H. J., Esk, T., Fernandez-Medarde, A., Foroud, T., Freimer, N. B., Girault, J.-A., Grobbee, D. E., Guarrera, S., Gudbjartsson, D. F., Hartikainen, A.-L., Heath, A. C., Hesselbrock, V., Hofman, A., Hottenga, J.-J., Isohanni, M. K., Kaprio, J., Khaw, K.-T., Kuehnel, B., Laitinen, J., Lobbens, S., Luan, J., Mangino, M., Maroteaux, M., Matullo, G., McCarthy, M. I., Mueller, C., Navis, G., Numans, M. E., Nunez, A., Nyholt, D. R., Onland-Moret, C. N., Oostra, B. A., O'Reilly, P. F., Palkovits, M., Penninx, B. W., Polidoro, S., Pouta, A., Prokopenko, I., Ricceri, F., Santos, E., Smit, J. H., Soranzo, N., Song, K., Sovio, U., Stumvoll, M., Surakk, I., Thorgeirsson, T. E., Thorsteinsdottir, U., Troakes, C., Tyrfingsson, T., Tonjes, A., Uiterwaal, C. S., Uitterlinden, A. G., van der Harst, P., van der Schouw, Y. T., Staehlin, O., Vogelzangs, N., Vollenweider, P., Waeber, G., Wareham, N. J., Waterworth, D. M., Whitfield, J. B., Wichmann, E. H., Willemsen, G., Witteman, J. C., Yuan, X., Zhai, G., Zhao, J. H., Zhang, W., Martin, N. G., Metspalu, A., Doering, A., Scott, J., Spector, T. D., Loos, R. J., Boomsma, D. I., Mooser, V., Peltonen, L., Stefansson, K., van Duijn, C. M., Vineis, P., Sommer, W. H., Kooner, J. S., Spanagel, R., Heberlein, U. A., Jarvelin, M.-R., Elliott, P.
    National Academy of Sciences
    Publication Date: 2011-04-27
    Description: Alcohol consumption is a moderately heritable trait, but the genetic basis in humans is largely unknown, despite its clinical and societal importance. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of ∼2.5 million directly genotyped or imputed SNPs with alcohol consumption (gram per day per kilogram body weight) among 12 population-based samples of European ancestry, comprising 26,316 individuals, with replication genotyping in an additional 21,185 individuals. SNP rs6943555 in autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) was associated with alcohol consumption at genome-wide significance (P = 4 × 10−8 to P = 4 × 10−9). We found a genotype-specific expression of AUTS2 in 96 human prefrontal cortex samples (P = 0.026) and significant (P 〈 0.017) differences in expression of AUTS2 in whole-brain extracts of mice selected for differences in voluntary alcohol consumption. Down-regulation of an AUTS2 homolog caused reduced alcohol sensitivity in Drosophila (P 〈 0.001). Our finding of a regulator of alcohol consumption adds knowledge to our understanding of genetic mechanisms influencing alcohol drinking behavior.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-16
    Description: Transcriptional and splicing anomalies have been observed in intron 8 of the CASP8 gene (encoding procaspase-8) in association with cutaneous basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and linked to a germline SNP rs700635. Here, we show that the rs700635[C] allele, which is associated with increased risk of BCC and breast cancer, is protective against prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, P = 1.0 x 10 –6 ]. rs700635[C] is also associated with failures to correctly splice out CASP8 intron 8 in breast and prostate tumours and in corresponding normal tissues. Investigation of rs700635[C] carriers revealed that they have a human-specific short interspersed element-variable number of tandem repeat- Alu (SINE-VNTR- Alu ), subfamily-E retrotransposon (SVA-E) inserted into CASP8 intron 8. The SVA-E shows evidence of prior activity, because it has transduced some CASP8 sequences during subsequent retrotransposition events. Whole-genome sequence (WGS) data were used to tag the SVA-E with a surrogate SNP rs1035142[T] ( r 2 = 0.999), which showed associations with both the splicing anomalies ( P = 6.5 x 10 –32 ) and with protection against prostate cancer (OR = 0.91, P = 3.8 x 10 –7 ).
    Print ISSN: 0964-6906
    Electronic ISSN: 1460-2083
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-26
    Description: Sequence variants in the parental genomes that are not transmitted to a child (the proband) are often ignored in genetic studies. Here we show that nontransmitted alleles can affect a child through their impacts on the parents and other relatives, a phenomenon we call "genetic nurture." Using results from a meta-analysis of educational attainment, we find that the polygenic score computed for the nontransmitted alleles of 21,637 probands with at least one parent genotyped has an estimated effect on the educational attainment of the proband that is 29.9% ( P = 1.6 x 10 –14 ) of that of the transmitted polygenic score. Genetic nurturing effects of this polygenic score extend to other traits. Paternal and maternal polygenic scores have similar effects on educational attainment, but mothers contribute more than fathers to nutrition- and heath-related traits.
    Keywords: Genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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