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  • 1
    ISSN: 0022-2364
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    In:  Nature, New York, August, vol. 226, no. 3-4, pp. 243-248, pp. 1610, (ISSN: 1340-4202)
    Publication Date: 1970
    Keywords: Plate tectonics ; rifting
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  • 3
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    MIT Lincoln Lab.
    In:  Semiannual Technical Summary Report, Lexington, Mass., MIT Lincoln Lab., vol. 10, no. rapport C 20754-9.1 (2.2), pp. 38-41
    Publication Date: 1971
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI) ; Pattern recognition ; Detectors ; PIC ; ves ; Seismic networks ; Seismic arrays ; Discrimination ; Data analysis / ~ processing
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  • 4
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    In:  Nature, Warszawa, Army Corps of Engineers, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, vol. 232, no. 5, pp. 8-13, pp. 1013, (ISBN: 0-12-018847-3)
    Publication Date: 1971
    Keywords: Seismic networks ; Seismic arrays ; PIC ; ves
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  • 5
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    In:  Nature, London, Army Corps of Engineers, Woodward-Clyde Consultants, vol. 239, no. 5, pp. 318-323, pp. 1013, (ISBN: 0-12-018847-3)
    Publication Date: 1972
    Keywords: Seismology ; P-waves ; earth mantle ; Inhomogeneity
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-11-23
    Description: Although 90% of Antarctica's discharge occurs via its fast-flowing ice streams, our ability to project future ice-sheet response has been limited by poor observational constraints on the ice-bed conditions used in numerical models to determine basal slip. We have helped address this observational deficit by acquiring and analysing a series of seismic reflection profiles to determine basal conditions beneath the main trunk and tributaries of Pine Island Glacier (PIG), West Antarctica. Seismic profiles indicate large-scale sedimentary deposits. Combined with seismic reflection images, measured acoustic impedance values indicate relatively uniform bed conditions directly beneath the main trunk and tributaries, comprising a widespread reworked sediment layer with a dilated sediment lid of minimum thickness 1.5 ± 0.4 m. Beneath a slow-moving inter-tributary region, a discrete low-porosity sediment layer of 7 ± 3 m thickness is imaged. Despite considerable basal topography, seismic observations indicate that a till layer at the ice base is ubiquitous beneath PIG, which requires a highly mobile sediment body to maintain an abundant supply. These results are compatible with existing ice-sheet models used to invert for basal shear stress: existing basal conditions upstream will not inhibit further rapid retreat of PIG if the high-friction region currently restraining flow, directly upstream of the grounding line, is breached. However, small changes in the pressure regime at the bed, as a result of stress reorganisation following retreat, may result in a less-readily deformable bed and conditions which are less likely to maintain high ice-flow rates.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-11-09
    Description: Neutron probe measurements of snow density from 22 sites in the Pine Island Glacier basin have been used to determine mean annual accumulation using an automatic annual-layer identification routine. A mean density profile which can be used to convert radar two-way-travel times to depth has been derived, and the effect of annual fluctuations in density on estimates of the depth of radar reflectors is shown to be insignificant, except very near the surface. Vertical densification rates have been derived from the neutron probe density profiles and from deeper firn core density profiles available at 9 of the sites. These rates are consistent with the rates predicted by the Herron and Langway model for stage 1 densification (by grain-boundary sliding, grain growth and intracrystalline deformation) and stage 2 densification (predominantly by sintering), except in a transition zone extending from ≈8 to ≈13 m from the surface in which 10–14% of the compaction occurs. Profiles of volumetric strain rate at each site show that in this transition zone the rates are consistent with the Arthern densification model. Comparison of the vertical densification rates and volumetric strain rates indicates that the expected relation to mean annual accumulation breaks down at high accumulation rates even when corrections are made for horizontal ice velocity divergence.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: RED SEED stands for Risk Evaluation, Detection and Simulation during Effusive Eruption Disasters, and combines stakeholders from the remote sensing, modelling and response communities with experience in tracking volcanic effusive events. The group first met during a three day-long workshop held in Clermont Ferrand (France) between 28 and 30 May 2013. During each day, presentations were given reviewing the state of the art in terms of (a) volcano hot spot detection and parameterization, (b) operational satellite-based hot spot detection systems, (c) lava flow modelling and (d) response protocols during effusive crises. At the end of each presentation set, the four groups retreated to discuss and report on requirements for a truly integrated and operational response that satisfactorily combines remote sensors, modellers and responders during an effusive crisis. The results of collating the final reports, and follow-up discussions that have been on-going since the workshop, are given here. We can reduce our discussions to four main findings. (1) Hot spot detection tools are operational and capable of providing effusive eruption onset notice within 15 min. (2) Spectral radiance metrics can also be provided with high degrees of confidence. However, if we are to achieve a truly global system, more local receiving stations need to be installed with hot spot detection and data processing modules running on-site and in real time. (3) Models are operational, but need real-time input of reliable time-averaged discharge rate data and regular updates of digital elevation models if they are to be effective; the latter can be provided by the radar/photogrammetry community. (4) Information needs to be provided in an agreed and standard format following an ensemble approach and using models that have been validated and recognized as trustworthy by the responding authorities. All of this requires a sophisticated and centralized data collection, distribution and reporting hub that is based on a philosophy of joint ownership and mutual trust. While the next chapter carries out an exercise to explore the viability of the last point, the detailed recommendations behind these findings are detailed here.
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-01-26
    Description: Exploring interactions between ecological disturbance, species’ abundances and community composition provides critical insights for ecological dynamics. While disturbance is also potentially an important driver of landscape genetic patterns, the mechanisms by which these patterns may arise by selective and neutral processes are not well-understood. We used simulation to evaluate the relative importance of disturbance regime components, and their interaction with demographic and dispersal processes, on the distribution of genetic diversity across landscapes. We investigated genetic impacts of variation in key components of disturbance regimes and spatial patterns that are likely to respond to climate change and land management, including disturbance size, frequency, and severity. The influence of disturbance was mediated by dispersal distance and, to a limited extent, by birth rate. Nevertheless, all three disturbance regime components strongly influenced spatial and temporal patterns of genetic diversity within subpopulations, and were associated with changes in genetic structure. Furthermore, disturbance-induced changes in temporal population dynamics and the spatial distribution of populations across the landscape resulted in disrupted isolation by distance patterns among populations. Our results show that forecast changes in disturbance regimes have the potential to cause major changes to the distribution of genetic diversity within and among populations. We highlight likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity, or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our results have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes. We examine the relative importance of factors driving genetic diversity within and among populations that persist in an environment of recurrent disturbance. We demonstrate likely scenarios under which future changes to disturbance size, severity or frequency will have the strongest impacts on population genetic patterns. In addition, our findings have implications for the inference of biological processes from genetic data, because the effects of dispersal on genetic patterns were strongly mediated by disturbance regimes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-02-14
    Description: Using spectral line observations of HNCO, N 2 H + , and HNC, we investigate the kinematics of dense gas in the central ~250 pc of the Galaxy. We present scouse (Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine), a line-fitting algorithm designed to analyse large volumes of spectral line data efficiently and systematically. Unlike techniques which do not account for complex line profiles, scouse accurately describes the { l , b , v LSR } distribution of Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) gas, which is asymmetric about Sgr A* in both position and velocity. Velocity dispersions range from 2.6 km s –1 〈 〈 53.1 km s –1 . A median dispersion of 9.8 km s –1 , translates to a Mach number, $\mathcal {M}_{\rm 3D}\ge 28$ . The gas is distributed throughout several ‘streams’, with projected lengths ~100–250 pc. We link the streams to individual clouds and sub-regions, including Sgr C, the 20 and 50 km s –1 clouds, the dust ridge, and Sgr B2. Shell-like emission features can be explained by the projection of independent molecular clouds in Sgr C and the newly identified conical profile of Sgr B2 in { l , b , v LSR } space. These features have previously invoked supernova-driven shells and cloud–cloud collisions as explanations. We instead caution against structure identification in velocity-integrated emission maps. Three geometries describing the 3D structure of the CMZ are investigated: (i) two spiral arms; (ii) a closed elliptical orbit; (iii) an open stream. While two spiral arms and an open stream qualitatively reproduce the gas distribution, the most recent parametrization of the closed elliptical orbit does not. Finally, we discuss how proper motion measurements of masers can distinguish between these geometries, and suggest that this effort should be focused on the 20 km s –1 and 50 km s –1 clouds and Sgr C.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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