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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Animal Behaviour 34 (1986), S. 1206-1214 
    ISSN: 0003-3472
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 29 (1973), S. 1045-1058 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das einzige für die Biologie kennzeichnende Problem der Anpassung von Organismen an ihre Umwelt hat nicht die Bearbeitung erfahren, die es verdient hätte. Als einer der Hauptgründe für diese Lage wird das Fehlen einer formalisierten Methodenlehre für die naturwissenschaftliche Erforschung von Anpassungen, die Teleonomie, angesehen. Nach kurzer Streifung begrifflicher und ihrer Erforschung nach noch offenen Grundfragen, z. B. dem Ökonomieprinzip, wird ein methodischer Ansatz vorgelegt, mit dem Anpassungen entdeckt und ihrer Entstehung nach erforscht werden können. Die teleonomen Methoden umfassen 1. Das Aufsuchen von Korrelationen zwischen untersuchter Eigenschaft und Umwelt, die wie üblich weit oder aber eng, innerhalb der Grenzen des Organismus gefasst sein kann. Die notorische Vieldeutigkeit solcher Korrelationen macht einer Deutung als Ursache-Wirkungs-Beziehung zwischen der Selektion und der von ihr geformten Eigenschaft dort Platz, wo sichergestellt werden kann, dass nur ein Selektionsdruck am Werke ist. 2. Die Veränderung einer Eigenschaft und die daran anschliessende Prüfung auf verschiedenen Fortpflanzungserfolg bei so veränderten und unverändert gebliebenen Gliedern einer Art. Verhaltensweisen, die sich im Experiment oft als unveränderbar erweisen, können auf ihre Funktion hin untersucht werden, indem man ihre Wirkung auf die Umwelt verändert und entsprechend den Fortpflanzungserfolg der betroffenen Individuen miteinander vergleicht 3. Mit Hilfe von Varianten einer Art unter gleichen Selektionsbedingungen kann der Selektionswert einer Eigenschaft quantitativ ermittelt werden. In einem Anhang wird versucht, einige der häufigsten Irrtümer und Missverständnisse klarzustellen, die auch heute noch einer erfolgreichen Teleonomie entgegenstehen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 39 (1983), S. 25-34 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Since the process of natural selection entails a comparison of phenotypes and choosing of the best, optimality theory appears appropriate to identify selection pressures. Optimality theory doesnot test whether an organism is designed optimally — it assumes it. The ingredients of a complete optimization model are outlined and two approaches are exemplified. Both time-energy-budgeting and Pontryagin's maximum principle lead to semi-quantitative predictions about, e.g., an animal's behavior; they merely entail an inequality formalism. A discrepancy between prediction and test would not yet show a behavior to be maladaptive since several other explanations are possible. Animals optimize their behavior over intervals ranging from less than a second to months or years. It is unknown whether, with a long interval, the animal makes use of the opportunity to revise its decision(s). Present optimal foraging models predicting, e.g., diet breadth are too simple in that foragers a) may not always maximize energy intake, as postulated, b) have to allow for nutrient, toxin and remedial content of food items, and/or c) have to allow for interaction of items, annihilating their ranking along a unidimensional scale of profitability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 225 (1970), S. 750-751 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To decide between the two models, a number of special experiments were designed. In the course of 11 years, seventy different enemy dummies were shown to over 2,200 breeding pied flycatchers at a standard distance from their nest box (study areas in Berlin, around Frankfurt/Main, and near ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 17 (1961), S. 516-517 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Pied flycatchers (Ficedula h. hypoleuca) possess at least two releasing mechanisms for triggering the mobbing response to predators near the nest, namely for shrikes and for owls. This is demonstrated by the fact that body size, which was varied in dummy experiments, enters into these mechanisms differentially.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Newborn lizard (Anolis lineatopus) individuals differ clearly by their acceptance of 5 different prey items; there are 7 ‘etho-types’ of differential acceptance which after 5 weeks of feeding have become reduced to only 3.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 17 (1961), S. 188-189 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary German Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca hypoleuca) show a mobbing response to the Redbacked Shrike (Lanius collurio) as well as to owls. Spanish Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca iberiae) mob only at the latter. This correlates well with the fact that only nominatehypoleuca occurs together with the shrike, but both subspecies share their habitats with owls.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 228 (1970), S. 382-382 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] From mortality data obtained on the campus of the University of the West Indies in Mona, Kingston, and in neighbouring gardens, a relative selective coefficient of the habit to rest on the trunk was calculated. (I take relative selective coefficient as a quantitative measure for differential ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 86 (1999), S. 2800-2811 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Exact analytical solutions for the surface potential due to a current source are available only for special volume conductors. Here we derive approximate analytical solutions exploiting the fact that for the upper convexity of the head corrections to the spherical approximation are small compared to its radius. First we approximate the real surface, defined in terms of an angular dependent "radius," by a finite sum of spherical harmonics, regarding everything but the zeroth component (the sphere) as a small perturbation. Inserting this formulation into the standard surface integral equation allows us to analytically construct and invert the integral operator as a Taylor expansion with respect to the perturbation. Remarkably, for finite order of perturbation the integral operator and its inverse, expressed as a matrix in the basis of spherical harmonics, is sparse. Furthermore, without loss of generality the solution due to a current dipole can be expressed as a set of sums over a single index. Explicit formulas and examples will be presented for one shell, for an approximation of the surface up to second order of spherical harmonics, and up to first order of the perturbation. By comparing the results to the exact solution for a prolate spheroid we estimate the performance for realistic deformations. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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