In a series of publications dealing with the circulation of the North Atlantic, Worthington (1959, 1972, 1976, 1977) has challenged the widely accepted notion that the Gulf Stream system is entirely wind-driven. He was able to demonstrate that the Gulf Stream over its most intense portion south of New England generally intensifies in winter. Worthington postulates that strong surface cooling in winter is the cause of Gulf Stream intensification, i.e., he believes that a thermal mechanism is partially responsible for driving the Gulf Stream. Worthington speaks of 'anticyclogenesis' and of a 'fresh charge of energy' which the Gulf Stream receives at the end of each (severe) winter. A pattern of thermoline circulation arising in the upper layers of the Stream could play a role similar to that of the Hadley circulation in the atmosphere, which derives the subtropical jet stream. The present investigation is concerned with the examination of such a possibility, taking into account the employment of a two-layer model.
Journal of Marine Research (ISSN 0022-2402); 40; 1982