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  • 1
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Titan is the only satellite in our Solar System with a dense atmosphere. The surface pressure is 1.5 bar (ref. 1) and, similar to the Earth, N2 is the main component of the atmosphere. Methane is the second most important component, but it is photodissociated on a ...
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 388 (1997), S. 45-47 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The satellites Rhea and Dione orbit within the magnetosphere of Saturn, where they are exposed to particle irradiation from trapped ions. A similar situation applies to the galilean moons Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, which reside within Jupiter's radiation belts. All of these satellites have ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The wide spectral coverage and extensive spatial, temporal, and phase-angle mapping capabilities of the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini-Huygens Orbiter are producing fundamental new insights into the nature of the atmospheres of Saturn and Titan. For both bodies, VIMS maps over time and solar phase angles provide information for a multitude of atmospheric constituents and aerosol layers, providing new insights into atmospheric structure and dynamical and chemical processes. For Saturn, salient early results include evidence for phosphine depletion in relatively dark and less cloudy belts at temperate and mid-latitudes compared to the relatively bright and cloudier Equatorial Region, consistent with traditional theories of belts being regions of relative downwelling. Additional Saturn results include (1) the mapping of enhanced trace gas absorptions at the south pole, and (2) the first high phase-angle, high-spatial-resolution imagery of CH4 fluorescence. An additional fundamental new result is the first nighttime near-infrared mapping of Saturn, clearly showing discrete meteorological features relatively deep in the atmosphere beneath the planet's sunlit haze and cloud layers, thus revealing a new dynamical regime at depth where vertical dynamics is relatively more important than zonal dynamics in determining cloud morphology. Zonal wind measurements at deeper levels than previously available are achieved by tracking these features over multiple days, thereby providing measurements of zonal wind shears within Saturn's troposphere when compared to cloudtop movements measured in reflected sunlight. For Titan, initial results include (1) the first detection and mapping of thermal emission spectra of CO, CO2, and CH3D on Titan's nightside limb, (2) the mapping of CH4 fluorescence over the dayside bright limb, extending to approximately 750 km altitude, (3) wind measurements of approximately 0.5 ms(exp -1), favoring prograde, from the movement of a persistent (multiple months) south polar cloud near 88 deg S latitude, and (4) the imaging of two transient mid-southern-latitude cloud features.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Earth, Moon, and Planets (ISSN 0167-9295); Volume 96; 119-147
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Photometry and colorimetry of 951 Gaspra were obtained on nine nights during the 1990 opposition. A composite lightcurve constructed using data from eight of those nights yielded a synodic rotational period of 7.04346 +/- 0.00006 hours, a mean absolute V magnitude of 11.8026 +/- 0.0025, and a slope parameter of 0.285 +/- 0.005. The apparent discrepancy can be easily resolved by realizing that their determination is based primarily on data obtained after opposition. Different phase functions pre- and post-opposition are a natural consequence of a changing aspect during an opposition. If the sub-Earth latitude on Gaspra is at a less equatorial aspect after opposition than it was before opposition, then we would expect to see a shallower phase function (corresponding to a larger numerical value of the slope parameter). Adding weight to this hypothesis is the last observation of the opposition, made in May after Gaspra had passed post opposition quadrature, which is displaced toward brighter absolute magnitudes relative to the rest of our data, indicating an even more poleward sub-Earth latitude than earlier in the opposition. Because the orbits of Earth and Gaspra are nearly coplanar, a substantial change in sub-Earth latitude during the opposition would not have been possible unless the obliquity of the asteroid's rotational axis is not small.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the International Conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1991; p 220
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Measurement strategies are now being planned for using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) to observe the asteroid Hestia, and the nucleus, and the gas and dust in the coma of comet P/Tempel 2 as part of the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. The spectral range of VIMS will cover wavelengths from 0.35 to 5.2 micrometers, with a spectral resolution of 11 nm from 0.35 to 2.4 micrometers and of 22 nm from 2.4 to 5.2 micrometers. The instantaneous field of view (IFOV) provided by the foreoptics is 0.5 milliradians, and the current design of the instrument provides for a scanning secondary mirror which will scan a swath of length 72 IFOVs. The CRAF high resolution scan platform motion will permit slewing VIMS in a direction perpendicular to the swath. This enables the building of a two dimensional image in any or all wavelength channels. Important measurements of the dust coma will include the onset of early coma activity, the mapping of gas and dust jets and correlations with active nucleus areas, observations of the dust coma from various scattering phase angles, coverage of the low wavelength portion of the thermal radiation, and the 3.4 micrometer hydrocarbon emission. A description of the VIMS instrument is presented.
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: NASA, Washington, Infrared Observations of Comets Halley and Wilson and Properties of the Grains; p 136
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-131893
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The techniques of low temperature spectroscopy are applied to identify the constituents of the ices covering the surface of Io, a satellite of Jupiter. Infrared spectra of Io in the 4000-2000 cm exp -1 region, including new observational data, are analyzed using laboratory studies of plausible surface ices.
    Keywords: INORGANIC AND PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
    Type: NASA, Washington, Fourth Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life; p 115
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Spectra of Io obtained during eclipse show a narrow deep absorption feature at 4.871 microns, the wavelength of the Nu sub 1 + Nu sub 3 band of solid SO2. The 4 micron radiation comes from volcanic hot spots at a temperature too high for the existence of solid SO2. It is concluded that the spectral feature results from SO2 particles suspended in plumes above the hot spots. The derived abundance of approximately 0.0003 gm/sq cm may imply an SO2 solid-to-gas ratio of roughly one for the Loki plume, which would in turn suggest that it is driven by the SO2 rather than by sulfur.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:175414 , NASA-CR-175414
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The Spitzer Space Telescope, formerly known as SIRTF, is now operational and delivers unprecedented sensitivity for the observation of Solar System targets. Spitzer's capabilities and first general results were presented at the January 2004 AAS meeting. In this poster, we focus on Spitzer's performance for moving targets, and the first Solar System results. Spitzer has three instruments, IRAC, IRS, and MIPS. IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) provides simultaneous images at wavelengths of 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) has 4 modules providing low-resolution (R=60-120) spectra from 5.3 to 40 microns, high-resolution (R=600) spectra from 10 to 37 m, and an autonomous target acquisition system (PeakUp) which includes small-field imaging at 15 m. MIPS (Multiband Imaging Photometer for SIRTF) does imaging photometry at 24, 70, and 160 m and low-resolution (R=15-25) spectroscopy (SED) between 55 and 96 microns. Guaranteed Time Observer (GTO) programs include the moons of the outer Solar System, Pluto, Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and comets
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Outer Solar System; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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