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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 176-183 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The safest method to prevent fires and explosions of flammable mixtures in the first place. This method requires detailed knowledge of the flammability region as a function of the fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations. A triangular flammability diagram is the most useful tool to display the flammability region, and to determine if a flammable mixture is present during plant operations.This paper describes how to draw and use a flammability diagram. A procedure to estimate the flammability region using the available and sometimes limited data is discussed. The paper also shows how to use the flammability diagram with plant operations involving inerting and purging, and from bringing vessels into and out of service. A compilation of flammability diagrams for 30 materials, based on previously published data is provided.An automated apparatus for acquiring data for a flammability diagram is described. The apparatus consists of a 20-L sphere with an automated gas mixing system, a fuse-wire ignition system, and a high speed pressure measurement and data acquisition system. Data derived from the apparatus includes flammability limits, maximum pressure during combustion, and the maximum pressure rate. The effect of fuse-wire ignitor dynamics on the results is studied. A flammability diagram for methane drawn from data obtained from the apparatus, is presented.
    Additional Material: 18 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 1-5 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The EPA Risk Management Plan (RMP) has considerable requirements for consequence modeling. This paper discusses the modeling requirements, the data required from your process to perform this modeling, and a summary of the minimal modeling procedures required to meet the RMP.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 10 (1991), S. 136-142 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Current methods to determine the thermodynamic energy of explosion are based on the Helmholtz free energy. The Helmholtz free energy represents the maximum work available from a system during a constant temperature process. For many real explosions, the material is initially at a temperature or pressure higher than the ambient environment. Thus, the Helmholtz free energy does not account for all of the energy sources.The thermodynamic availability provides a general approach to determine the maximum work available from any process. Furthermore, the availability provides a much more formal and structured method for performing the calculations.This paper provides the formal basis, demonstrates the application of availabilty using a number of examples, and provides a table of availability data.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 11 (1992), S. 47-49 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper expands on the work of Crowl [1] by using thermodynamic availability to calculate the energy of explosion for compressed gases.The results show that thermodynamic availability is a completely general approach, including effects due to chemical reaction and mechanical expansion. For the case of a non-reactive gas, a general equation is presented to determine the energy of explosion due to mechanical expansion of the gas. The energy determined using availability is much less than the energy determined assuming an isothermal expansion and usually much more than the energy determined assuming an isentropic expansion. Since availability is a state function, the energy determined is independent of the path.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 8 (1989), S. 225-227 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper describes a set of videotapes on chemical process safety produced by Wayne State University and BASF Corporation. The intent of the videotapes is to provide instruction on the application of safety procedures and process safety technology in a chemical pilot plant development area and the application of proper safety procedures in a laboratory.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Detection of nucleic acids by innate immune sensors triggers the production of type I interferons (IFNs). While IFNs are essential for host defense against viral infection, dysregulated production of IFNs underlies numerous autoinflammatory diseases. We have found that the loss of sumoylation results in a potent, spontaneous IFN response. Vertebrates...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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