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  • 1
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    Elsevier / Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute
    In:  Studies in Mycology, 92 . pp. 287-415.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-07
    Description: Species of Sporocadaceae are endophytic, plant pathogenic or saprobic, and associated with a wide range of host plants. Recent molecular studies that have attempted to address familial and generic boundaries of fungi belonging to Sporocadaceae were based on a limited number of samples and DNA loci. The taxonomy of this group of fungi is therefore still not fully resolved. The aim of the present study is to provide a natural classification for the Sporocadaceae based on multi-locus phylogenetic analyses, using LSU, ITS, tef-1α, tub2 and rpb2 loci, in combination with morphological data. A total of 30 well-supported monophyletic clades in Sporocadaceae are recognised, representing 23 known and seven new genera. Typifications are proposed for the type species of five genera (Diploceras, Discosia, Monochaetia, Sporocadus and Truncatella) to stabilise the application of these names. Furthermore, Neotruncatella and Dyrithiopsis are synonymised under Hymenopleella, and the generic circumscriptions of Diploceras, Disaeta, Hymenopleella, Monochaetia, Morinia, Pseudopestalotiopsis, Sarcostroma, Seimatosporium, Synnemapestaloides and Truncatella are emended. A total of 51 new species, one nomina nova and 15 combinations are introduced.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: barley ; resistance ; Rhynchosporium secalis ; scald ; virulence spectrum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The virulence spectra of 50 Rhynchosporium secalis isolates from a population in the Western Cape province of South Africa were determined, and 21 races were detected when evaluated against 17 differential cultivars. The virulence spectrum of the R. secalis population shows considerable variation, and carries unnecessary virulence genes which is quite unexpected, since chiefly susceptible barley cultivars are grown in the south Western Cape. The two most prevalent races, namely races 4 and 7 had three and four virulence genes respectively. Both race 4 and 7 were virulent on the most susceptible cultivars, West China, Steudelli, C.I.8618 and C.I.2226. Considering the resistance genes reported for the cultivars Atlas 46, Turk, and C.I.3515 which showed no susceptible cultivar-pathogen interaction, it would appear that the Rh-Rh3-Rh4 complex is primarily involved in conferring resistance to the local R. secalis isolates
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.41 (2018) p.109
    Publication Date: 2018-04-06
    Description: The genus Neocosmospora encompasses highly prevalent and aggressive human and animal fungal pathogens. Here we assign formal descriptions and Latin binomials to some of the most clinically relevant phylogenetic species of the genus. Three new species, named Neocosmospora catenata, N. gamsii and N. suttoniana (previously assigned to the informal names ‘Fusarium’ solani species complex (FSSC) lineages, FSSC 43, FSSC 7 and FSSC 20, respectively) are described on the basis of multilocus phylogenetic analyses (using EF-1α, ITS, LSU and RPB2 loci) and morphological characters. Lineage FSSC 9 is conspecific with the ex-type strain of Cylindrocarpon tonkinense, thus the new combination Neocosmospora tonkinensis is proposed. In addition, and based on the latest taxonomy for this generic complex, new combinations are introduced for four medically important taxa: Neocosmospora keratoplastica, N. lichenicola, N. metavorans and N. petroliphila. The most significant distinctive features for all the clinically relevant species treated here are compared and illustrated.
    Keywords: eight new taxa ; Fusarium ; Neocosmospora ; pathogens ; phylogeny ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 4
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.37 (2016) p.106
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: The fern flora of the world (Pteridophyta) has direct evolutionary links with the earliest vascular plants that appeared in the late Devonian. Knowing the mycobiota associated to this group of plants is critical for a full understanding of the Fungi. Nevertheless, perhaps because of the minor economic significance of ferns, this niche remains relatively neglected by mycologists. Cercosporoid fungi represent a large assemblage of fungi belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae (Ascomycota) having cercospora-like asexual morphs. They are well-known pathogens of many important crops, occurring on a wide host range. Here, the results of a taxonomic study of cercosporoid fungi collected on ferns in Brazil are presented. Specimens were obtained from most Brazilian regions and collected over a 7-yr period (2009–2015). Forty-three isolates of cercosporoid and mycosphaerellalike species, collected from 18 host species, representing 201 localities, were studied. This resulted in a total of 21 frond-spotting taxa, which were identified based on morphology, ecology and sequence data of five genomic loci (actin, calmodulin, ITS, LSU and partial translation elongation factor 1-α). One novel genus (Clypeosphaerella) and 15 novel species (Cercospora samambaiae, Clypeosphaerella sticheri, Neoceratosperma alsophilae, N. cyatheae, Paramycosphaerella blechni, Pa. cyatheae, Pa. dicranopteridis-flexuosae, Pa. sticheri, Phaeophleospora pteridivora, Pseudocercospora brackenicola, Ps. paranaensis, Ps. serpocaulonicola, Ps. trichogena, Xenomycosphaerella diplazii and Zasmidium cyatheae) are introduced. Furthermore, 11 new combinations (Clypeosphaerella quasiparkii, Neoceratosperma yunnanensis, Paramycosphaerella aerohyalinosporum, Pa. dicranopteridis, Pa. gleicheniae, Pa. irregularis, Pa. madeirensis, Pa. nabiacense, Pa. parkii, Pa. pseudomarksii and Pa. vietnamensis) are proposed. Finally, nine new host associations are recorded for the following known fungal species: Cercospora coniogrammes, Cercospora sp. Q, Ps. abacopteridicola, Ps. lygodiicola and Ps. thelypteridis.
    Keywords: biodiversity ; Cercospora ; frond spot ; multilocus sequence typing (MLST) Mycosphaerella phylogeny Pteridophyta systematics ; Mycosphaerella ; phylogeny ; Pteridophyta ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 5
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.36 (2016) p.57
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Based on morphology and DNA sequence data the taxonomic relationships of Microdochium, Monographella and Idriella were reassessed. Microdochium is morphologically and phylogenetically circumscribed, and the sexual genus Monographella treated as synonym on the basis that Microdochium has more species, is more commonly encountered, and more frequently used in literature. An epitype is designated for Microdochium phragmites, and several well-known species are redefined based on their morphology and DNA sequence data (LSU, ITS, BTUB and RPB2). Furthermore, the revision of Microdochium led to six new combinations (M. albescens, M. consociatum, M. fusariisporum, M. maydis, M. opuntiae and M. stevensonii) and six new species (M. citrinidiscum, M. colombiense, M. fisheri, M. neoqueenslandicum, M. seminicola and M. trichocladiopsis) being proposed. Microdochium s.str. belongs to a monophyletic clade, together with Idriella lunata and Selenodriella, representing a new family, Microdochiaceae, in Xylariales. Other species previously accommodated in Microdochium belong to different orders in the Ascomycota. Microdochium gracile belongs to Sordariomycetes (incertae sedis) and Paramicrodochium is proposed to accommodate this species. Microdochium tripsaci belongs to Ephelis in Clavicipitaceae, while M. fusarioides belongs to a new genus, Microdochiella in Orbiliales. Idriella s.str. is a monotypic genus phylogenetically closely related to Microdochium. Idriella s.l. separates into different genera in Xylariales (incertae sedis) including Castanediella, Selenodriella, Idriellopsis, Neoidriella and Paraidriella, the last three proposed here as new genera.
    Keywords: cereals ; grasses ; phytopathogenic fungi ; Sordariomycetes ; Xylariales
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 6
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (1878-9080) vol.40 (2018) p.96
    Publication Date: 2018-01-23
    Description: The genus Seiridium includes multiple plant pathogenic fungi well-known as causal organisms of cankers on Cupressaceae. Taxonomically, the status of several species has been a topic of debate, as the phylogeny of the genus remains unresolved and authentic ex-type cultures are mostly absent. In the present study, a large collection of Seiridium cultures and specimens from the CBS and IMI collections was investigated morphologically and phylogenetically to resolve the taxonomy of the genus. These investigations included the type material of the most important Cupressaceae pathogens, Seiridium cardinale, S. cupressi and S. unicorne. We constructed a phylogeny of Seiridium based on four loci, namely the ITS rDNA region, and partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF), β-tubulin (TUB) and RNA polymerase II core subunit (RPB2). Based on these results we were able to confirm that S. unicorne and S. cupressi represent different species. In addition, five new Seiridium species were described, S. cupressi was lectotypified and epitypes were selected for S. cupressi and S. eucalypti.
    Keywords: appendage-bearing conidia ; canker pathogen ; Cupressus ; pestalotioid fungi ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: Pyricularia oryzae is a species complex that causes blast disease on more than 50 species of poaceous plants. Pyricularia oryzae has a worldwide distribution as a rice pathogen and in the last 30 years emerged as an important wheat pathogen in southern Brazil. We conducted phylogenetic analyses using 10 housekeeping loci for 128 isolates of P. oryzae sampled from sympatric populations of wheat, rice, and grasses growing in or near wheat fields. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the isolates into three major clades. Clade 1 comprised isolates associated only with rice and corresponds to the previously described rice blast pathogen P. oryzae pathotype Oryza (PoO). Clade 2 comprised isolates associated almost exclusively with wheat and corresponds to the previously described wheat blast pathogen P. oryzae pathotype Triticum (PoT). Clade 3 contained isolates obtained from wheat as well as other Poaceae hosts. We found that Clade 3 is distinct from P. oryzae and represents a new species, Pyricularia graminis-tritici (Pgt). No morphological differences were observed among these species, but a distinctive pathogenicity spectrum was observed. Pgt and PoT were pathogenic and highly aggressive on Triticum aestivum (wheat), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Urochloa brizantha (signal grass), and Avena sativa (oats). PoO was highly virulent on the original rice host (Oryza sativa), and also on wheat, barley, and oats, but not on signal grass. We conclude that blast disease on wheat and its associated Poaceae hosts in Brazil is caused by multiple Pyricularia species. Pyricularia graminis-tritici was recently found causing wheat blast in Bangladesh. This indicates that P. graminis-tritici represents a serious threat to wheat cultivation globally.
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 8
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.34 (2015) nr.1 p.10
    Publication Date: 2015-07-02
    Description: The circumscription of the genus Acremonium (Hypocreales) was recently reviewed on the basis of a DNA phylogenetic study. Several species were subsequently transferred to Sarocladium, but the relationships between both genera remained unresolved. Based on multilocus phylogenetic inferences combined with phenotypic data, we have revised the species concepts within Sarocladium and some genetically related species of Acremonium. As a result of these studies, six species are described as new, viz. S. bifurcatum, S. gamsii, S. hominis, S. pseudostrictum, S. subulatum and S. summerbellii. In addition, the new combinations S. implicatum and S. terricola are proposed for A. implicatum and A. terricola, respectively. Sarocladium attenuatum is confirmed as synonym of the type species of the genus, S. oryzae. An epitype and neotype are also introduced for S. oryzae and S. implicatum, respectively. Although Sarocladium species have traditionally been considered as important phytopathogens, the genus also contains opportunistic human pathogens. This study extends the spectrum of clinical species that could be diagnosed as causal agents of human infections.
    Keywords: Acremonium ; Hypocreales ; phylogeny ; Sarocladium ; taxonomy
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: "We investigated the phylogenetic diversity of 144 Colletotrichum isolates associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of Camellia sinensis and other Camellia spp. from seven provinces in China (Fujian, Guizhou, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), and seven isolates obtained from other countries, including Indonesia, UK, and the USA. Based on multi-locus (ACT, ApMat, CAL, GAPDH, GS, ITS, TUB2) phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characters, 11 species were distinguished, including nine well-characterised species (C. alienum, C. boninense, C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. karstii, C. siamense), and two novel species (C. henanense and C. jiangxiense). Of these, C. camelliae proved to be the most dominant and probably host specific taxon occurring on Camellia. An epitype is also designated for the latter species in this study. Colletotrichum jiangxiense is shown to be phylogenetically closely related to the coffee berry pathogen C. kahawae subsp. kahawae. Pathogenicity tests and the pairwise homoplasy index test suggest that C. jiangxiense and C. kahawae subsp. kahawae are two independent species. This study represents the first report of C. alienum and C. cliviae occurring on Camellia sinensis. In addition, our study demonstrated that the combined use of the loci ApMat and GS in a phylogenetic analysis is able to resolve all currently accepted species in the C. gloeosporioides species complex."
    Keywords: Camellia ; Colletotrichum ; morphology ; phylogeny ; tea plants
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 10
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    In:  Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi (0031-05850) vol.20 (2008) nr.1 p.9
    Publication Date: 2015-04-20
    Description: Coniothyrium-like fungi are common wood and soil inhabitants and hyperparasites on other fungi. They belong to different fungal genera within the Pleosporales. Several isolates were obtained on wood of different Prunus species (plum, peach and nectarine) from South Africa, on Actinidia species from Italy and on Laurus nobilis from Turkey. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S nrDNA, ITS1, ITS2, partial SSU nrDNA) were used to characterise them. The isolates belonged to three species of the recently established genus Paraconiothyrium. This is the first report of Paraconiothyrium brasiliense on Prunus spp. from South Africa. Two new species are described, namely Paraconiothyrium variabile sp. nov. on Prunus persica and Prunus salicina from South Africa, on Actinidia spp. from Italy and on Laurus nobilis from Turkey, and Paraconiothyrium africanum sp. nov. on Prunus persica from South Africa. Although other known species of Paraconiothyrium commonly produce aseptate conidia, those of P. africanum and P. hawaiiense comb. nov. are predominantly two-celled.
    Keywords: Coniothyrium ; Microdiplodia ; Paraphaeospaeria ; phylogeny ; Pleosporales ; systematics
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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