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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Visible Imaging System (VIS) is a set of three low-light-level cameras to be flown on the POLAR spacecraft of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) program which is an element of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) campaign. Two of these cameras share primary and some secondary optics and are designed to provide images of the nighttime auroral oval at visible wavelengths. A third camera is used to monitor the directions of the fields-of-view of these sensitive auroral cameras with respect to sunlit Earth. The auroral emissions of interest include those from N 2 + at 391.4 nm, Oi at 557.7 and 630.0 nm, Hi at 656.3 nm, and Oii at 732.0 nm. The two auroral cameras have different spatial resolutions. These resolutions are about 10 and 20 km from a spacecraft altitude of 8R e . The time to acquire and telemeter a 256×256-pixel image is about 12 s. The primary scientific objectives of this imaging instrumentation, together with thein-situ observations from the ensemble of ISTP spacecraft, are (1) quantitative assessment of the dissipation of magnetospheric energy into the auroral ionosphere, (2) an instantaneous reference system for thein-situ measurements, (3) development of a substantial model for energy flow within the magnetosphere, (4) investigation of the topology of the magnetosphere, and (5) delineation of the responses of the magnetosphere to substorms and variable solar wind conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Magnetotail observations from the ISEE 3 distant (1983) tail mission taken during the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop 8 (CDAW 8) A and G events are investigated. The ISEE 3 magnetic field, plasma, and energetic particle measurements taken in these two plasmoids have been analyzed and compared with various equilibrium structures and propagating waves/tail oscillation modes. Results indicate general agreement with either the closed-loop (Hones, 1977) or very small pitch angle flux rope (Hughes and Sibeck, 1987; Birn et al., 1989) models of plasmoid structure and poorer agreement with other hypotheses. Calculations based upon typical plasmoid and tail parameters are presented, indicating that the J and B force associated with the disconnected lobe field lines may be sufficient to accelerate plasmoids up to the speeds observed by ISEE 3. Overall, the energy expended in accelerating the plasmoids down the tail appears comparable to that dissipated in the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere. The study produces strong evidence in favor of the plasmoid model of substorm tail dynamics.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 15153-15
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: A small, isolated substorm with an expansion phase onset at 0739 UT on January 28, 1983 was well observed by ground-based instrumentation as well as by low- and high-altitude spacecraft. Because of the comprehensive nature of the data coverage, including ISEE-3 identification of plasmoid signatures in the deep tail (about 220 earth radii) associated with the substorm, a detailed timeline of the growth, expansion, and recovery phases of the substorm can be provided. The plasma, energetic particle, and field signatures at ISEE-3 are considered within the framework of the near-earth data. Quantitative estimates of substorm energy input and output relationships are made for this case, and the timing and physical dimensions of the deep tail disturbance implied are evaluated by the global observations available.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 8; 9-10,; 113-115
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: Data from explorer xiv satellite concerning the absolute intensities of geomagnetically trapped particles and the outer boundary of the magnetosphere
    Keywords: PROPULSION SYSTEMS
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-05-11
    Description: Absolute intensities of geomagnetically trapped particles with explorer xiv
    Keywords: PROPULSION SYSTEMS
    Type: SUI-62-31
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Northern auroral regions low energy electron fluxes survey by Injun 4 satellite during minimum solar activity
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: ; ADEMIE DES SCIENCES
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The dynamics of the polar thermosphere are examined by using observations made from the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite. The results used in this study were obtained primarily from the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and the wind and temperature spectrometer (WATS) during the time period from September 1981 through January 1982. Two primary geophysical conditions were examined: these were the southern summer and the northern winter polar regions. The results support the conclusion that above 60 degrees of latitude the neutral winds are strongly controlled by ion/neutral frictional momentum transfer resulting from magnetospheric convection. This implies that the natural coordinate system within which to display the neutral winds in the high polar thermosphere is magnetic. The collected observations of this study were used to assess the validity of two of the large thermospheric general circulation models. The result of this assessment was that the models reasonably represent the vector winds at high altitudes but do not, at present, accurately simulate the thermodynamics of that regime.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 89; 5597-561
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: Brightness of the terrestrial far-ultraviolet (FUV) dayglow is dominated by the 130.4-nm emission of neutral atomic oxygen, OI, and variations in the brightness observed from altitudes high above the emitting region reflect variations in thermospheric oxygen density. This paper summarizes the results of an initial survey of the Dynamics Explorer 1 observations of the FUV dayglow through a presentation of 13 representative events selected to demonstrate the spatial extent and short-term temporal stability of the brightness perturbations. The emphasis here is on the morning sector of local time and the polar cap for observations obtained in the time interval from September 23, 1981, through January 19, 1982. An analytic expression is derived for the average response of the FUV photometer to the dayglow during periods of high-latitude magnetic quiescence. The remaining observations in this time interval are then analyzed for their deviations from the established quiet time values. Deviations of -40% to +30% are found following intervals of increased magnetic activity. The most significant decreases (-30% to -40%) are observed equatorward of the instantaneous aurora] oval only after sustained periods (approx. 6 hours) of intense magnetic activity (average AE greater than approx. 700 nT). Decreases extend equatorward from the aurora to geographic latitudes as low as approx. 30 deg N. Decreases of lesser magnitude that do not extend as far equatorward are associated with sustained periods of more moderate activity in which the average value of AE is smaller (approx. 300-400 nT). Also, the spatial extent and magnitude of the decreases in the morning sector appear greater when the IMF B(sub y) component is positive. In both cases, decreases are readily observed within the polar cap. Localized enhancements of +20% to +30% occur much less frequently and are detected at the middle latitudes, well equator-ward of the auroral oval.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Paper-96JA03464 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 102; A3
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: Hawkeye plasma, magnetic field, and plasma wave instruments directly sampled the throat of the northern polar cusp as the orientation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) changed from southward to northward on July 3, 1974. Two distinct regions in the polar cusp were identified based on magnetic field, plasma flow and magnetic and electric noise: the interior and exterior cusps. The observations show highly variable flows in the exterior portion of the cusp and constantly strong dawn-dusk flows in the interior portion during periods of strong IMF By component. Results of a minimum variance analysis of the magnetic field at each cusp interface crossing provides evidence that the magnetopause surface normal deviated highly from empirical models. During intervals of relatively steady solar wind dynamic pressure, the motion of the cusp relative to the slow moving spacecraft was modulated by the varying IMF clock angle as observed by IMP 8 in the upstream solar wind. The motion did not show a correlation with internal processes monitored by the A E index. We propose that observed plasma flow patterns and cusp motion are results of reconnection between the IMF and the magnetospheric magnetic field. Flow velocity observed in the interior cusp is consistent with stress balance for a reconnection process. This unique interval provides an opportunity for detailed studies of the plasma, magnetic field, and plasma wave properties in both the exterior and interior cusp.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Paper-97JA00743 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 102; A6; 11,335-11,347
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: Using measurements from the High Altitude Plasma Instrument (HAPI) on the Dynamics-Explorer 1 (DE-1) spacecraft and the Low Altitude Plasma Instrument (LAPI) on Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2), we investigate both die high altitude and low altitude extents of the auroral acceleration region. To infer the high altitude limit, we searched the HAPI data base for evidence of upward-directed auroral electric fields located above the spacecraft when the HAPI spacecraft is above 9000 km altitude. We find that such acceleration is common when DE-1 flies through die auroral oval at an altitude of 9,000-11,000 km. At altitudes above 11,000 km, the fraction of the orbits with evidence of at least a 1000 V potential drop above the spacecraft falls, becoming essentially zero above an altitude of 15,000 km. Above that altitude, small (100 V) potential drops are frequently observed, but only rarely are approx. 1 kV potentials observed, typically associated with polar cap or 'theta' arcs or westward traveling surges. To investigate the low-altitude limit of the auroral acceleration region, we use conjunctions of DE 1 and DE 2 along auroral field lines and match the upgoing fluxes of ionospheric ions observed by DE 2 with the flux of accelerated upgoing ions observed at DE 1. Calculating the ionospheric scale height from the ion and electron temperatures and assuming that the parallel flow velocity is independent of height above 800 km, we calculate the altitude at which the upwelling ionospheric ions are effectively completely lost to upward acceleration. The initial lowest-altitude acceleration process could be either a perpendicular acceleration or a parallel electric field, but it must be sufficient to give the entire distribution escape energy. We find that in the two cases studied, near the region of peak auroral potential drop the altitude of this acceleration was around 1700 km (near the O/H neutral crossover altitude), but was significantly higher (approx. 2000 km) near the edges of the arc, where the potential was lower. The composition of the upgoing ion beam was consistent with these heights, being predominately H(+) near the edges and O(+) near the peak.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: NASA-CR-204419 , NAS 1.26:204419 , Auroral Plasma Dynamics; 143-154
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