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  • 1
    Call number: SR 90.0935(20)
    In: Fieldiana
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: III, 63 S.
    Series Statement: Fieldiana : Geology N.S., 20
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Angiosperms ; Chloranthaceae ; Platanaceae ; Trochodendrales ; Fagaceae ; Cercidiphyllum ; Paleobotany ; phylogeny ; floral structure ; leaf architecture
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Paleobotanical studies indicate that several isolated and systematically depauperate groups of extant woody dicotyledons originated in the Mid Cretaceous. TheChloranthaceae had probably differentiated into insect-pollinated (Chloranthus andSarcandra) and wind-pollinated (Ascarina andHedyosmum) forms by the end of the Albian, and leaves referable to theTrochodendrales are known from the Albian and Cenomanian. In the latest Cretaceous and Early Tertiary, extinct representatives of theTrochodendrales includedNordenskioldia and theJoffrea-Nyssidium complex. ThePlatanaceae also differentiated before the end of the Albian and initially had insect-pollinated, unisexual flowers with five carpels or stamens. Some of these features persisted in the platanoid lineage until the Early Tertiary, and during the Paleocene and Eocene thePlatanaceae included forms with elliptical, palmate and pinnate foliage. The history of thePlatanaceae suggests that several features of the reproductive morphology of extant taxa may have arisen in association with a trend toward wind pollination. In the Mid Cretaceous, platanoid foliage partially intergrades with pinnateSapindopsis and pedateDebeya-Dewalquea leaves suggesting a close relationship betweenPlatanaceae andRosidae andFagaceae respectively. TheChloranthaceae, Trochodendrales, andPlatanaceae all occupy a somewhat intermediate position between theMagnoliidae andHamamelidae and are of considerable interest with respect to their role in the initial radiation of nonmagnoliid (“higher”) dicotyledons.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Primitive angiosperms ; Chloranthaceae ; Palaeobotany ; Cretaceous fossils ; floral evolution ; flower morphology ; pollen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Fossil chloranthoid androecia,Chloranthistemon endressii gen. et spec. nov. are described from the Upper Cretaceous (Upper Santonian or Lower Campanian) of Scania, southern Sweden. They are three-lobed and dorsiventrally flattened with all pollen sacs borne laterally and inclined toward the presumed adaxial surface. The central lobe bears two pairs of pollen sacs, the lateral lobes a single pair each. The morphology, anatomy and valvate dehiscence of the fossil androecia is very similar to that seen in extant species ofChloranthus andSarcandra, but the in situ pollen differs from that of all extantChloranthaceae in being spiraperturate. A single chloranthoid androecium from the Lower Cretaceous (Upper Albian) of Maryland, North America has a more generalized structure thanChloranthistemon endressii. It consists of three stamens that are fused at the base, and each stamen bears two pairs of oppositely positioned pollen sacs. Combined with anatomical information from recentChloranthus the Lower Cretaceous specimen suggests that the androecium in the living genus has arisen by fusion and other modifications of three separate stamens each with a normal complement of four pollen sacs. The structure of both the Upper and Lower Cretaceous androecia suggest that these fossilChloranthaceae were insectpollinated. Macrofossil evidence combined with information from dispersed pollen indicates that theChloranthaceae diversified early in angiosperm fossil history and were an important component of Mid-Cretaceous plant communities.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Lycopsids ; Bennettitales ; angiosperms ; Morphological innovation ; sterilization ; modularity ; dissociation ; co-option
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Recent discussions of animal development, particularly at the level of molecular genetics, have emphasized modularity, dissociation and co-option as basic principles of evolutionary developmental biology. These concepts are discussed in relation to two specific structural innovations in land plant evolution: the leaves (microphylls) of lycopsids, and the interseminal scales ofBennettitales. Both structures appear to have been derived evolutionarily by the diverted development of reproductive organs. In the case of lycopsids, recent analyses of phylogenetic relationships suggest that leaves are sterilized sporangia modified for photosynthetic assimilation. In the case ofBennettitales, structural data suggest that the interseminal scales are sterilized “cupules” modified for protection of the ovules. In both cases, multiplication of reproductive organs seems to have accentuated functional redundancy, and together with the developmental autonomy (dissociation) already inherent in the modular construction of plants, appears to have facilitated sterilization and co-option of some of these structures for new purposes. Numerous other examples in plants illustrate the same principles.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-0860
    Keywords: Keywords: Ashizawa Formation (Futaba Group), Cretaceous, Fossil flowers, Fossil plants, Japan, Kamikitaba assemblage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: in situ spores, and megaspores also document the presence of Selaginellaceae and Schizaeaceae.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 374 (1995), S. 27-33 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The major diversification of flowering plants (angiosperms) in the Early Cretaceous, between about 130 and 90 million years ago, initiated fundamental changes in terrestrial ecosystems and set in motion processes that generated most of the extant plant diversity. New palaeobotanical ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 366 (1993), S. 631-632 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ANGIOSPERMS, the flowering plants, are the most diverse group of plants on the planet and in the past 25 years there has been extraordinary progress in understanding their early evolution. No single idea has been more influential in guiding research than the conventional view that angiosperms first ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 342 (1989), S. 131-131 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIRâáá€Martin et al.1 attempt to date the origin of angiosperms by analysing sequences of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogen-ase (GAPDH) in nine angiosperm species, assuming an approximately constant (clock-like) rate of ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 320 (1986), S. 690-691 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ON AN ecological timescale the complexity of interactions between plants and their environment is widely recognized, but in geological time the nature of these interactions and the extent to which they may influence patterns of environmental or evolutionary change have received little attention. ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Over the past 25 years the discovery and study of Cretaceous plant mesofossils has yielded diverse and exquisitely preserved fossil flowers that have revolutionized our knowledge of early angiosperms, but remains of other seed plants in the same mesofossil assemblages have so far ...
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