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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-0768
    Keywords: Key words Silica ; Voltammetry ; Polyoxometalate ; Diffusion ; Solids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Voltammetry of silicotungstic acid (STA), H4SiW12O40, that was encapsulated in silica was performed in the absence of a contacting liquid phase. Two one-electron reductions that are separated by 200 mV were observed, which is the same behavior as in aqueous solution. At scan rates, v, below 10 mV s−1 with a 10 μm dia. carbon fiber indicator electrode, plateaus with limiting currents which are independent of v were observed, which is indicative of spherical diffusion from a field that is much larger than the electrode area. At v 〉 20 V s−1, peaks were observed with currents directly proportional to v ½. For a gel aged for 2 days, an effective diffusion coefficient, D eff, of 3 × 10−7 cm2 s−1 was estimated by voltammetry and chronoamperometry; the concentration of the redox sites thereby determined was about 0.5 M. The D eff values that were obtained in this study were larger than expected for a solid electrolyte, which suggests an important role of residual water. In support of this model, gels that were aged in a humidistat at 33% humidity at room temperature for 2 and 5 days lost 16% and 13%, respectively, of their mass when dried at 120°.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-0768
    Keywords: Key words Sol-gel chemistry ; Silica ; Pore structure ; Colloidal Prussian Blue ; Cyanometallate redox sites
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract We describe a sol-gel approach by which iron hexacyanoferrate is immobilized in silica in a manner suited to investigation by electrochemistry in the absence of a contacting liquid phase. Such physicochemical parameters as concentration of redox sites (C o) and apparent (effective) diffusion coefficient (D app) are estimated by performing cyclic voltammetric and potential step experiments in two time regimes, which are characterized by linear and spherical diffusional patterns, respectively. Values of D app and C o thereby obtained are 2.0 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 and 1.4 × 10−2 mol dm−3. The D app value is larger than expected for a typical solid redox-conducting material. Analogous measurements done in iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(III) solutions of comparable concentrations, 1.0 × 10−2 and 5.0 × 10−3 mol dm−3, yield D app on the level of 5–6 × 10−6 cm2 s−1. Thus, the dynamics of charge propagation in this sol-gel material is almost as high as in the liquid phase. The residual water in the silica, along with the pore structure, are important to the overall mechanism of charge transport, which apparently is limited by physical diffusion rather than electron self-exchange. Under conditions of a solid state voltammetric experiment which utilizes an ultramicroelectrode, encapsulated iron hexacyanoferrate redox centers seem to be in the dispersed colloidal state rather than in a form of the rigid polymeric film.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0479
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Summary This paper addresses the apparent conflict between the results of experiments on individual choice and judgement and the results of market experiments. Data are reported for experiments designed to analyze the effects of (a) economic incentives, repetition, feedback and information and (b) choice and valuation response modes on (c) subjects' decisions in paired market and nonmarket environments. Causes of divergent market and nonmarket behavior are identified in the context of the preference reversal phenomenon (PRP). Study of the PRP is extended to two types of market environments. The PRP is observed on the first repetition in a market setting (second price auction) with immediate feedback, both with and without financial incentives. However, after five repetitions of the auction, the subjects' bids are generally consistent with their choices and the asymmetry between the rates of predicted and unpredicted reversals disappears. An individual pricing task using the BDM mechanism yields similar results on the first repetition but results which differ from the second price auction on the fifth repetition. Choice tasks produce lower rates of reversals than do pricing tasks in both market and individual decision making settings.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0479
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Summary.  This paper addresses the apparent conflict between the results of experiments on individual choice and judgement and the results of market experiments. Data are reported for experiments designed to analyze the effects of (a) economic incentives, repetition, feedback and information and (b) choice and valuation response modes on (c) subjects’ decisions in paired market and nonmarket environments. Causes of divergent market and nonmarket behavior are identified in the context of the preference reversal phenomenon (PRP). Study of the PRP is extended to two types of market environments. The PRP is observed on the first repetition in a market setting (second price auction) with immediate feedback, both with and without financial incentives. However, after five repetitions of the auction, the subjects’ bids are generally consistent with their choices and the asymmetry between the rates of predicted and unpredicted reversals disappears. An individual pricing task using the BDM mechanism yields similar results on the first repetition but results which differ from the second price auction on the fifth repetition. Choice tasks produce lower rates of reversals than do pricing tasks in both market and individual decision making settings.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-9678
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1955
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Four controlled studies, one each in Australia, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States, involving 30 calves each were conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated rainfall on the efficacy of Ivomec Pour-On against infections of Cooperia spp. At 3 weeks before treatment the calves were infected orally with third-stage larvae of Cooperia spp. In each study a recent, locally derived field isolate was used. The calves were allocated by restricted randomization based on body weight within sex to one of the following treatments: unmedicated control with no rain, Ivomec Pour-On with no rain, Ivomec Pour-On with rain starting at 40 min before treatment, Ivomec Pour-On with rain starting at 10 min after treatment, and Ivomec Pour-On with rain starting at 60 min after treatment. Ivomec Pour-On was applied topically at a dose rate of 1 ml/10 kg body weight (500 μg ivermectin/kg body weight). The simulated rainfall was equivalent to a heavy shower of approximately 12.5 mm of water during a 30-min period. The calves were necropsied for worm counting at 14 or 15 days after treatment. An evaluation of the pooled data showed that as compared with the untreated controls, the Ivomec Pour-On-treated calves with no rain had significantly (P 〈 0.01) fewer C. oncophora (〉99%), C. punctata (〉99%), C. surnabada (〉98%), and combined Cooperia spp. (〉99%). The reduction in Cooperia numbers noted for calves exposed to simulated rainfall was 〉96% for all Cooperia species, regardless of when the rainfall started relative to the application of Ivomec Pour-On. There was no significant (P 〉 0.1) difference between the Ivomec Pour-On-treated calves with no rain and the pooled groups with simulated rainfall or between the group with rain before treatment and the pooled groups with rain after treatment. Ivomec Pour-On was highly effective against established infections of Cooperia spp. when applied to wet animals or to animals becoming wet shortly after treatment.
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  • 10
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    Santa Cruz, CA: University of California, Economics Department
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This paper develops a theory of revealed preferences over one.s own and others.monetary payo¤s. We introduce .more altruistic than.(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric models. We also introduce and illustrate .more generous than. (MGT), a partial ordering over opportunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism focus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the .rst mover (FM) chooses a more or less generous opportunity set for the second mover (SM). Here reciprocity can be formalized as the assertion that an MGT choice by the FM will elicit MAT preferences in the SM and, fur- thermore, that the e¤ect on preferences is stronger for acts of commision than acts of ommision by FM. We state and prove propositions on the observable consequences of these assertions. Then we test those propositions using exist- ing data from investment games with dictator controls and Stackelberg games and new data from Stackelberg mini-games.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Offenbarte Präferenzen ; Altruismus ; Willingness to pay ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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