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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 322 (1986), S. 169-171 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Microbiological studies of deep-sea hydrothermal vents have been concerned primarily with defining the metabolic processes involved and measuring the magnitude of chemosynthetic productivity (for a review see rf. 13); only a few studies have addressed microbe-metal interactions11'14. Nearly all of ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Hydrothermal vents on mid-ocean ridges of the northeast Pacific Ocean are known to respond to seismic disturbances, with observed changes in vent temperature. But these disturbances resulted from submarine volcanic activity; until now, there have been no observations of the response of a ...
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology ecology 47 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Direct evidence for autotrophic ammonia oxidation is documented for the first time in a deep-sea hydrothermal plume. Elevated NH4+ concentrations of up to 341±136 nM were recorded in the plume core at Main Endeavour Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge. This fueled autotrophic ammonia oxidation rates as high as 91 nM day−1, or 92% of the total net NH4+ removal. High abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria was detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within the plume core (1.0–1.4×104 cells ml−1) accounted for 7.0–7.5% of the total microbial community, and were at least as abundant as methanotrophs. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were a substantial component of the particle-associated communities (up to 51%), with a predominance of the r-strategist Nitrosomonas-like cells. In situ chemolithoautotrophic organic carbon production via ammonia oxidation may yield 3.9–18 mg C m−2 day−1 within the plume directly over Main Endeavour Field. This rate was comparable to that determined for methane oxidation in a previous study, or at least four-fold greater than the flux of photosynthetic carbon reaching plume depths measured in another study. Hence, autotrophic ammonia oxidation in the neutrally buoyant hydrothermal plume is significant to both carbon and nitrogen cycling in the deep-sea water column at Endeavour, and represents another important link between seafloor hydrothermal systems and deep-sea biogeochemistry.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1421
    Keywords: iron phosphorous calcite barite cement
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The walls of many deep-sea foraminiferal tests containabiogenic and biogenic, precipitated and agglutinated,components. Both environmental and genetic factorscan contribute to the great diversity in test form andcomposition in benthic foraminifera. Yet, smallspecimen size and the remoteness of the deep-seaenvironment have limited our ability to describe therelative influence of these biological and chemicalfactors. The use of fossilized foraminiferal tests aspaleo-indicators requires that we understand thecontrols on test composition. Test wall morphologyand composition were examined inforaminifera that colonized experimental substratesdeployed on a seamount in the central North Pacific. Three types of agglutinated forms were identified. Atriserial (Eggerella-like) and two-chambered(Hyperammina-like) form contained a Ca-rich(CaCO3) precipitate and the chamber walls of anencrusting two-chambered form was Ba-rich(BaSO4). We discuss the composition of thesebiologically precipitated minerals in the context ofthe environmental conditions during the life of theseforaminifera.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-09-22
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 22541, doi:10.1038/srep22541.
    Description: The rock-hosted, oceanic crustal aquifer is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth, yet little is known about its indigenous microorganisms. Here we provide the first phylogenetic and functional description of an active microbial community residing in the cold oxic crustal aquifer. Using subseafloor observatories, we recovered crustal fluids and found that the geochemical composition is similar to bottom seawater, as are cell abundances. However, based on relative abundances and functional potential of key bacterial groups, the crustal fluid microbial community is heterogeneous and markedly distinct from seawater. Potential rates of autotrophy and heterotrophy in the crust exceeded those of seawater, especially at elevated temperatures (25°C) and deeper in the crust. Together, these results reveal an active, distinct, and diverse bacterial community engaged in both heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oxygenated crustal aquifer, providing key insight into the role of microbial communities in the ubiquitous cold dark subseafloor biosphere.
    Description: This work was supported by NSF OCE1062006 to JAH, NSF OCE1061934 to PRG, and NSF OCE1061827 to BTG. The Center for Dark Energy Biosphere Investigations (C-DEBI) (OCE-0939564), a National Science Foundation-funded Science and Technology Centers of Excellence also supported the participation of CGW, THL, JPC, JAH, BT, and CHH, as well as JLM and UJ through C-DEBI Postdoctoral Fellowships.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 9 (2008): Q06T01, doi:10.1029/2008GC002104.
    Description: As part of a rapid response cruise in May 2006, we surveyed water column hydrothermal plumes and bottom conditions on the East Pacific Rise between 9°46.0′N and 9°57.6′N, where recent seafloor volcanic activity was suspected. Real-time measurements included temperature, light transmission, and salinity. Samples of the plume waters were analyzed for methane, manganese, helium concentrations, and the δ 13C of methane. These data allow us to examine the effects of the 2005–2006 volcanic eruption(s) on plume chemistry. Methane and manganese are sensitive tracers of hydrothermal plumes, and both were present in high concentrations. Methane reached 347 nM in upper plume samples (250 m above seafloor) and exceeded 1085 nM in a near-bottom sample. Mn reached 54 nM in the upper plume and 98 nM in near-bottom samples. The concentrations of methane and Mn were higher than measurements made after a volcanic eruption in the same area in 1991, but the ratio of CH4/Mn, at 6.7, is slightly lower, though still well above the ratios measured in chronic plumes. High concentrations of methane in near-bottom samples were associated with areas of microbial mats and diffuse venting documented in seafloor imagery. The isotopic composition of the methane carbon shows evidence of active microbial oxidation; however, neither the fractionation factor nor the source of the eruption-associated methane can be determined with any certainty. Considerable scatter in the isotopic data is due to diverse sources for the methane as well as fractionation as methane is consumed. One sample at +21‰ versus Peedee belemnite standard is among the most enriched methane carbon values reported in a hydrothermal plume to date.
    Description: This field work was supported by NSF awards OCE0222069 (J.P.C., M.D.L.); OCE0525863 (D.J.F.); and OCE0327261 (T.M..S.); and the NASA Astrobiology Institute (JPC). The NOAA-VENTS program provided additional support through a grant to the Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean (JISAO) under NOAA Cooperative Agreement NA17RJ1232.
    Keywords: Hydrothermal ; Plume ; Methane isotopes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 25, no. 1 (2012): 128–141, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2012.11.
    Description: Submarine volcanic eruptions and intrusions construct new oceanic crust and build long chains of volcanic islands and vast submarine plateaus. Magmatic events are a primary agent for the transfer of heat, chemicals, and even microbes from the crust to the ocean, but the processes that control these transfers are poorly understood. The 1980s discovery that mid-ocean ridge eruptions are often associated with brief releases of immense volumes of hot fluids ("event plumes") spurred interest in methods for detecting the onset of eruptions or intrusions and for rapidly organizing seagoing response efforts. Since then, some 35 magmatic events have been recognized and responded to on mid-ocean ridges and at seamounts in both volcanic arc and intraplate settings. Field responses at mid-ocean ridges have found that event plumes occur over a wide range of eruption styles and sizes, and thus may be a common consequence of ridge eruptions. The source(s) of event plume fluids are still debated. Eruptions detected at ridges generally have high effusion rates and short durations (hours to days), whereas field responses at arc volcanic cones have found eruptions with very low effusion rates and durations on the scale of years. New approaches to the study of submarine magmatic events include the development of autonomous vehicles for detection and response, and the establishment of permanent seafloor observatories at likely future eruption sites.
    Description: Support for these efforts came from the NOAA Vents Program and the National Science Foundation, primarily through its long-term funding of the RIDGE and Ridge 2000 Programs, including grants OCE-9812294 and OCE-0222069. SOSUS detection efforts were supported from 2006 to 2009 by the National Science Foundation, grant OCE-0623649.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-12
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-07-12
    Print ISSN: 1751-7362
    Electronic ISSN: 1751-7370
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1986-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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