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  • 1
    Call number: PIK Q 200-99-0044
    In: ZIB-Report SC
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 9 p.
    Series Statement: ZIB-Report SC 98-22
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Si valutano le variazioni di entropia per tutte le possibili reazioni accoppiate che definiscono l'intera sequenza di un completo processo biochimico. I valori previsti sono in buon accordo con tutti i dati da noi conosciuti. I risultati mostrano che i processi biochimici inducono una diminuzione netta di entropia all'interno dei sistemi animali grazie al processo di respirazione. Si mostra inoltre che anche nei sistemi vegetali la variazione negativa di entropia è prevalentemente determinata dal processo di respirazione.
    Abstract: Резюме Оцениваются изменения энтропии для всех возможных связанных реакций, которые полностью определяют биохимические поцессы. Предсказания хорощо согласуются со всеми известными данными. Полученные результаты покзывают, что биохимические процессы в животных системах приводят к результирующему уменьшению энтропии вследствие дыхания. Показывается, что дыхание представляет первичный источник уменьшения энтропии также в растительных системах.
    Notes: Summary Entropy changes are evaluated for all possible coupled reactions which define the overall biochemical processes. Predictions are well supported by all known data. The results show that biochemical process in animal systems yield a net decrease of entropy thanks to respiration. It is shown also that the respiration is the primary source of entropy decrease in vegetal systems.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0392-6737
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Riassunto Si valutano quantitativamente le variazioni di, entropia che si hanno nella biodegradazione e nella biosintesi delle macromolecole. I calcoli tengono conto delle componenti esoenergetiche e endoenergetiche che costituiscono il processo complessivo di biosintesi delle macromolecole. Le entropie standardS o' delle macromolecole biologiche sono calcolate usando un metodo, recentemente proposto, che dà perS o' valori il cui accordo con i dati sperimentali è migliore del 4%. Si considerano gli effetti e le indeterminazioni dovuti alle reali concentrazioni dei reagenti, alle variazioni delpH e alle diverse conformazioni delle proteine in soluzione. I risultati mostrano che la biodegradazione delle macromolecole, che nei sistemi animali fornisce i mattoni biologici necessari per costruire le nouve macromolecole, produce un aumento di entropia. Un aumento ancora maggiore di entropia si ottiene nel processo in cui i mattoni biologici si legano insieme per formare le bio-macromolecole, sia nei sistemi animali, che in quelli vegetali. Si mette anche in evidenza che i risultati del presente lavoro convalidano ulteriormente le conclusioni di un precedente articolo, nel quale si è mostrato che la sorgente della diminuizione di entropia all'interno dei biosistemi è il processo di respirazione: tale sorgente è l'unica nei sistemi animali ed è quella determinate nei sistemi vegetali.
    Abstract: Резюме Количественно оцениваются изменения энтропии при макромолекулярных биодеградации и биосинтезе. При вычислениях учитываются экзоэнергетические и эндоэнергетические компоненты, которые определяют полные процессы макромолекулярного биосинтеза. Вычисляются стандартные энтропииS 0′ биомакромолекул, использя недавно предложенный метод, который дает значенияS 0′, хорошо солласущиеся с экспериментальными данными (лучше, чем 4%). Рассматриваются эффекты и неопределенности для реальных концентраций реагирующих веществ, дляpН изменений и для различных конформаций протеинов в растворе. Результаты показывают, что биодеградация макромолекул, которая в животных системах обеспечивает строительные блоки для монтажа новых биомкромолекул, приводит к увеличению энтропии. Еще большее увеличение энтропии получено при объединении строительных блоков в биомакромолекулы в животных и растительных системах. Отмечается, что полученные результаты подтверждают выводы предыдущей статьи, согласно которым, источник уменьшения энтропии в биосистемах представляет дыхание: как единственный источник в животных системах и как основной источник в растительныы системах.
    Notes: Summary Entropy changes are quantitatively evaluated for the macromolecule biodegradation and biosynthesis. Evaluations take into account both the esoenergetic and the endoenergetic components which define the overall processes of the macromolecule biosynthesis. The standard entropies So' of bio-macromolecules are calculated by using a method recently proposed which yields So' values whose agreement with experimental data is better than 4%. Effects and uncertainties are considered for the actual reactant concentrations, for thepH changes and for the different conformations of proteins in solution. Results show that the macromolecule biodegradation, which supplies in animal systems the building blocks to be assembled in new bio-macromolecules, produces an increase of entropy. An even higher entropy increase is obtained in the linkage of building blocks to form bio-macromolecules both in animal and vegetal systems. Among other conclusions, we underline that present results give a strong support to the conclusions of a previous paper showing that the source of entropy decrease in biosystems is respiration, as unique source in animal systems and as primary source in vegetal systems.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The corrosion of five materials for implant suprastructures (cast-titanium, machined-titanium, gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy and chromium-nickel alloy), was investigated in vitro, the materials being galvanically coupled to a titanium implant. Various electrochemical parameters ECORR, iCORR Evans diagrams, polarization resistance and Tafel slopes) were analyzed. The microstructure of the different dental materials was observed before and after corrosion processes by optical and electron microscopy. Besides, the metallic ions released in the saliva environment were quantified during the corrosion process by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique (ICP-MS). The cast and machined titanium had the most passive current density at a given potential and chromium-nickel alloy had the most active critical current density values. The high gold content alloys have excellent resistance corrosion, although this decreases when the gold content is lower in the alloy. The palladium alloy had a low critical current density due to the presence of gallium in this composition but a selective dissolution of copper-rich phases was observed through energy dispersive X-ray analysis. ©2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary ¶On 18 June 1997 two simultaneous supercells 50 km apart swept the Po valley W-NW to E-SE. An exceptional hailfall lasted for more than 3 hours over a strip 200 km wide. There are no records of companion supercells over northern Italy, a fact that attributes to the present observations a considerable meteorological interest. The forcing due to a baroclinic wave disturbance created the synoptic conditions favourable for storm development. A closer mesoscale analysis conducted using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) indicates that the interaction of the storm systems with the low-level frontal high-humidity band is a key aspect of their evolution. The operational polarimetric Doppler weather radar of S. Pietro Capofiume was used for a volumetric analysis of the storm system focusing on the microphysical and dynamical structure, and wind patterns. Reflectivity and Doppler wind fields document the transition from multicell to supercell phase for one of the storms. Differential reflectivity (ZDR) fields are examined. Positive ZDR columns are detected in connection with the storms strong updraft. Flare echoes hint to the presence of substantial hailshafts. The spectrum width field is used to investigate internal motions. Limited dual Doppler analysis is carried out and results are discussed in terms of storm evolution properties.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0972
    Keywords: Genotoxic agents ; spore mutagenesis ; Streptomyces
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of u.v. light and of several chemical agents on spores of the tetracycline producer Streptomyces aureofaciens MT1 were studied using survival curves and induction of histidine prototrophic revertants (his +). Spores were highly resistant to u.v.; NTG induced most his + revertants. 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide and methyl methanesulphonate also gave good yields of revertants. Whereas ethyl methanesulphonate had the least effect on inducing the revertants.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: diffusion ; Taylor dispersion method ; tetrazolium blue ; Triton X-100 micelles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Diffusion coefficients of the electron acceptor dye tetrazolium blue were measured by the Taylor dispersion method, with an accuracy better than 4%, in two solvents: (i) a homogeneous one-aqueous phosphate buffer, 0.1 M, pH=7.0 (medium I); and (ii) a heterogeneous one-nonionic micelles of Triton X-100, 2.0 mM (where M stands for mol·dm−3), in the same aqueous phosphate buffer (medium II). The values obtained were D 12 I =3.64×10−10m2·s−1 and D 12 II =3.01×10−10m2·s−1·D 12 II has the meaning of a “macroscopird or “average” diffusion coefficient, in which the partition coefficient of tetrazolium blue between micelles and water, as well as the diffusion coefficients of this dye and of the micelles in the aqueous phase, are involved.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9532
    Keywords: TOPOLOGY CHANGE ; INFLATION
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We propose a modified form of the spontaneousbirth of the universe by quantum tunneling. It proceedsthrough topology change and inflation, to eventuallybecome a universe with closed spatial sections of negative spatial curvature and nontrivialglobal topology.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ; nude mice ; hyphal forms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Congenitally athymic nude mice (nu/nu) and their phenotypically normal littermates (nu/+) were intraperitoneally infected with yeast cells of a strain of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The nude mice developed a severe and generalized infection with an intense parasitism of several organs, accompanied by a low-grade of tissue reaction. The lesions were characterized by abundant yeast-like cells of the fungus, and in some animals, numerous hyphal forms could be well visualized. In control animals, infection was moderate, almost exclusively restricted to the area of inoculation, and the lesions presented few parasites surrounded by an inflammatory response. Filamentous forms of the fungus were never encountered in these animals.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: reverse micelles ; cutinase ; deactivation ; conformational changes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Deactivation data and fluorescence intensity changes were used to probe functional and structural stability of cutinase in reverse micelles. A fast deactivation of cutinase in anionic (AOT) reverse micelles occurs due to a reversible denaturation process. The deactivation and denaturation of cutinase is slower in small cationic (CTAB/1-hexanol) reverse micelles and does not occur when the size of the cationic reverse micellar water-pool is larger than cutinase. In both systems, activity loss and denaturation are coupled processes showing the same trend with time. Denaturation is probably caused by the interaction between the enzyme and the surfactant interface of the reversed micelle. When the size of the empty reversed micelle water-pool is smaller than cutinase (at W0 5, with W0 being the water:surfactant concentration ratio) a three-state model describes denaturation and deactivation with an intermediate conformational state existing on the path from native to denaturated cutinase. This intermediate was clearly detected by an increase in activity and shows only minor conformational changes relative to the native state. At W0 20, the size of the empty water-pool was larger than cutinase and the data was well described by a two-state model for both anionic and cationic reverse micelles. For AOT reverse micelles at W0 20, the intermediate state became a transient state and the deactivation and denaturation were described by a two-state model in which only native and denaturated cutinase were present. For CTAB/1-hexanol reverse micelles at W0 20, the native cutinase was in equilibrium with an intermediate state, which did not suffer denaturation. 1-Hexanol showed a stabilizing effect on cutinase in reverse micelles, contributing to the higher stabilities observed in the cationic CTAB/1-hexanol reverse micelles. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58:380-386, 1998.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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