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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 60 (1992), S. 1824-1826 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: It is shown that the diffusion of Cu into the Ni layer of a Ni/Cu bilayer film after thermal annealing is significantly reduced when the deposition temperature of the Ni layer is raised from approximately 50 to 200 °C. The effect of the deposition temperature on the physical structure of the Ni layer and the possible connection between the Ni layer physical structure and the diffusion reduction are investigated. The effect of the diffusion on the resistivity of the Cu layer is also studied.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The feeding ecology of the lesser weever, Echiichthys vipera, from the adjacent coastal areas of the Douro and Tagus estuaries (Portugal) was studied between October 2000 and July 2002. The stomach contents of 246 individuals were analysed and diet was characterized by the numerical, gravimetric, occurrence and vacuity indices. Variation of feeding habits with fish length (〈95 and 〉95 mm) and geographical area was considered. Diet of the lesser weever comprised a large variety of prey (28 species), the most important of which were crustaceans (numerical index, NI = 93.5%; occurrence index, OI = 75.6%), namely Mysidacea (especially Schistomysis sp.), Amphipoda (mainly Gammarus subtypicus) and Isopoda (Idotea spp.), and also Teleostei (mostly larval stages that posted a gravimetric index, GI = 53.0%). Diet varied with fish length, with large individuals showing a larger diversity of prey items. Furthermore, specimens from Douro also showed a higher diversity of prey items than those from Tagus. More than 50% of the stomachs were empty, being the highest vacuity values relative to smaller fishes as well as to individuals from the Tagus estuary adjacent coastal area.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fish species densities from 1025 hauls obtained with beam trawl and stow net catches from the southern Tagus and northern Elbe estuaries were analysed for two different periods of time between 1978 and 1997. The data were related with environmental factors to compare species composition and densities, contributions of different ecological guilds, structuring environmental key factors, intra-annual cyclicity and interperiodical stability of ichthyofaunas in large European estuaries at different latitudes. Although the total number of species in both the Tagus and Elbe estuaries (Tagus: 57 species, Elbe: 58 species) was very similar, significant differences were estimated in species compositions, species densities and number of species, and individuals of the different ecological guilds between both estuaries. A total of 15 species occurred in both estuaries but only two of these species, the catadromous Anguilla anguilla and the marine estuarine opportunist Pleuronectes flesus, contributed substantially to the total abundance. Marine species together contributed more than 5% of the total number of species in the Tagus and Elbe estuaries, whereas their contribution in number of individuals amounted to 22% in the Tagus and only 9% in the Elbe. In terms of number of individuals, the ichthyofauna of the Tagus estuary was dominated by estuarine species (especially Pomatoschistus spp.) contributing 68% of the total abundance. In contrast, the fish fauna of the Elbe estuary was dominated by high numbers of anadromous species (88%) individuals, especially Osmerus eperlanus. Canonical corresponding analyses (CCA) indicated that, besides intra-annual variables, salinity and mouth distance were two of the most important environmental factors structuring the fish communities in both estuaries. Moreover, water depth was found to be an important environmental factor in the Tagus estuary, whereas the water temperature substantially affected the ichthyofaunal composition in the Elbe estuary. In both estuaries, contributions by number of species and number of individuals of the different ecological guilds were not statistically different between the two periods considered, 1978–80 and 1995–97 for the Tagus, and 1981–86 and 1989–95 for the Elbe. Nevertheless, from 1981–86 until 1989–95 a remarkable increase of about 4.5 times in the densities of O. eperlanus was observed in the Elbe estuary, probably related to improved water quality, especially of oxygen conditions in the nurseries since 1990. This was also supported by the results of CCA, suggesting important influences of the years 1989 and 1990 on the Elbe estuary fish assemblage. Climate change as a result of global warming may be evident for the observed changes of the densities of P. flesus which decreased in the southern Tagus estuary and, in contrast, increased in the northern Elbe estuary during comparable periods of time. It is recommended to use the ecological guild classification scheme which was applied for the Tagus and Elbe estuaries for further studies of European estuarine fish assemblages.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The estuarine food habits of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in the upper zone of the Tagus estuary have been studied through the analysis of 210 specimens collected during 1988. Eels, measuring from 136 to 627 mm in total length, fed on prey organisms ranging from 2.0 to 76.0 mm in length. Amphipods and the shore crab, Carcinus maenas (L.), were the most important food items found. In more saline muddy bottom areas polychaetes, bivalves and shrimp increased their importance as prey, replacing the amphipods as preferential food. Fish were always a secondary, although significant, prey item. The occurrence of seasonal variations in eels' diet could be attributed to fluctuations in prey densities. There was evidence of a close relationship between the quantity of prey organisms in the benthos and the composition of eels' stomach contents, but a certain degree of food selection based on size, concealment capacity and motility of prey, was found.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: In the present study, the nursery role of the coastal areas adjacent to the Douro estuary for pouting, Trisopterus luscus Linnaeus, 1758, was analysed. The distribution and abundance patterns, diet and growth of T. luscus were studied based on samples collected on seven occasions from November 2000 to March 2002 using a 12 m otter-trawl with 18 mm mesh size at 12 sites within the estuary and six sites in the adjacent coastal areas. This species occurred only in the coastal areas adjacent to the estuary and a marked seasonal pattern was reported, which reflected the peak abundance of juveniles that use this area as a nursery ground. No marked relationships were obtained between T. luscus abundance and the environmental variables considered. Nonetheless, the highest densities of pouting were recorded at sites where water temperature was high compared with the other sampling areas. Diet of T. luscus juveniles was mainly composed of crustaceans Decapoda, Mysidacea and Amphipoda. The growth rate determined for T. luscus juveniles off the Portuguese coast was higher than those reported for North European areas, and was similar to those obtained in the eastern Mediterranean.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: A total of 366 Halobatrachus didactylus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) individuals were obtained between September and November 2000 from commercial fishing vessels at eight localities along the Portuguese coast and analysed for metazoan parasite infections. Three species of parasites were found: Hysterothylacium aduncum Rudolphi 1802; Progrillotia dasyatidis Beveridge et al. 2004, which constitutes a new host record for the Lusitanian toadfish; and Nerocila orbignyi Guérin-Méneville 1829. Prevalence and mean abundance were determined for the total fish population in each sample. Significant differences in the number of parasitized fish among the samples analysed indicate differences in the H. didactylus populations along the Portuguese coast. The cluster analysis performed to prevalence data pointed out two major clusters: one composed of mainly estuarine samples and one that grouped samples from coastal areas; this is in agreement with the results obtained by morphological and genetic analysis performed for the same samples.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1439-0426
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The distribution and abundance patterns as well as the feeding ecology of two flatfishes, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), were studied in the Douro estuary and adjacent coastal waters (Portugal) in order to evaluate the niche overlap between these species. Fish were collected during sampling surveys conducted every 2 months between November 2000 and March 2002 using a 12-m otter-trawl with 18 mm stretched mesh size, at 12 sites within the estuary and six sites in the adjacent coastal area. The highest densities of P. flesus were registered in the middle estuary; a peak density of 9.12 ind 1000 m−2 was obtained in October 2001. Solea solea densities were low compared with P. flesus; the highest values were also recorded in the middle estuary in October 2001. For both species, the proportion of juveniles was above 90% within the estuary. Highest densities of P. flesus and S. solea were recorded at sites with low water depth and high densities of crustaceans and polychaetes, the main food items in the diet of these species. High values of spatial and diet niche overlap were found between these two flatfishes (0.97 and 0.92, respectively).
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The stomach contents of samples of the mugilid Liza ramada (Risso, 1826), captured at Alcochete (brackish water zone of the Tagus Estuary) differed from those from Vala Nova (freshwater zone of the same estuary).In the freshwater zone of the estuary the mullet ingested preferentially planktonic micro-algae, while in the brackish water they ate benthic micro-algae.The stomach contents from Vala Nova showed a higher diversity of food items, compared with those from Alcochete. At Alcochete the Naviculales (numerical frequency, 82%) was the most representative order, while at Vala Nova it was the Coscinodiscales (61%) and the Chlorococcales (16%).In fresh water, the stomach contents contained about 25–4% organic matter, while at Alcochete only 8.7% was found.In the brackish water zone the ingestion rhythm was related to the tidal cycle, attaining a maximum during the high tide and a minimum at low tide.At Vala Nova the mullet ate regularly throughout the day. showing a slight increase at dawn and dusk. Apparently, the fish remained inactive by night, at both locations.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The diet of Alosafallax was studied by means of the frequency of occurrence of prey items. In the Tagus Estuary, shads feed preferentially on fish, with mysids, shrimp, isopods and insects occurring as secondary prey.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1095-8649
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The use of scale inspection as a means of age-determination in Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus in the Tagus estuary is confirmed, but annulus formation pattern is different from that described for P. microps in the area of the British Isles (Miller, 1975). In Britain, two annuli are laid down on the scales each year, but in the Tagus, only one annulus is formed. One possible reason for this difference is the fact that in the Tagus the peak breeding season and the lowest water temperatures coincide. Therefore, the two causes of annulus formation coexist at the same time of year.Population structure in both species is dominated by the 0-group, which appears earlier (April/May) than reported for other areas. Maximum age seems not to exceed 26 months in P. microps and 32 months in P. minutus.
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