Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Abstract Several important mineral deposits of Sn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and other metals associated with Devonian sediments and Yanshanian (Cretaceous) granitic rocks are known in the Dachang district (Guangxi). Early genetic hypotheses related the origin of the deposits entirely to the Yanshanian granites. Recently, it was suggested that in Devonian times an earlier syngenetic metal concentration may have occurred, later overprinted by the Yanshanian metallogeny. This contribution is aimed at placing constraints on the physicochemical conditions during the Yanshanian ore formation-remobilization by studying the sulfide chemistry (arsenopyrite, sphalerite, stannite) and fluid inclusion data on the two major deposits in the area, i.e., the polymetallic cassiterite deposit of Changpo and the Zn-Cu skarn deposit of Lamo. Sphalerite and arsenopyrite are quite abundant in both deposits; stannite is minor, but fairly widespread at Changpo, and quite rare at Lamo. They are accompanied by pyrite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite, cassiterite, fluorite, and a large variety of other sulfides and sulfosalts. The main compositional data for sphalerite and arsenopyrite are summarized as follows: Changpo: arsenopyrite associated with pyrrhotite 31.4–36.1 at% As; Associated with pyrite 31.9–33.1 at% As; sphalerite associated with pyrrhotite 18.3–22.2 mol% FeS; associated with pyrite 10.6–18.6 mol% FeS. Lamo: arsenopyrite associated with pyrrhotite 32.9–35.3 at% As; associated with pyrite 30.3–31.7 at% As; sphalerite associated with pyrrhotite, 17.2–24.4 mol% FeS; associated with pyrite 4.2–19.6 mol% FeS. Partitioning of Fe and Zn between coexisting sphalerite and stannite from Changpo indicates temperatures of 300°–350°C. For Lamo, the following fluid inclusion data are available: fluorite, salinities of ∼0–9.5 equiv. wt% NaCl, and homogenization temperatures between 160°C and 250°C; quartz, moderate salinities (∼0–4.6 equiv. wt% NaCl), and homogenization temperatures of 208°–260°C. Combining the mineralogical evidence with the compositional and fluid inclusion data, it is suggested that the evolution of the environment during the Yanshanian event was characterized by the following parameters: pressure was relatively low (on the order of 1–1.5 kb); temperature may have been as high as 500°C during deposition of the As-richest arsenopyrites, but eventually dropped below 200°–250°C in the latest stages; with an increase in sulfur activity and/or the decrease in temperature pyrrhotite was no longer stable in the latest stages of mineralization.
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