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  • 1
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1040-452X
    Keywords: Diamide ; dithiothreitol ; CASA ; Sperm kinematics ; Motility maintenance ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A method for objective quantification of hamster sperm movement parameters as an indicator of maturation along the epididymis was established using a computerised system. Analysis of spermatozoa released into medium from five epididymal regions showed that the most drastic increases in percentage motility and curvilinear velocity (VCL) occurred from the distal corpus to the beginning of the proximal cauda and in straight-line velocity (VSL) from the beginning to a more distal site within the proximal cauda region. Both high osmolarity (400 mOsm/kg) and the thiol-oxidising agent diamide (10 μM) increased flagellar straightness of distal corpus spermatozoa, but VSL was increased only with the latter. The thiol-reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT, 1mM) stimulated and maintained percentage motility and velocities of spermatozoa from the caput, stimulated only percentage motility of distal corpus sperm, but decreased velocities of those from the proximal cauda in prolonged incubation. In rats, diamide increased path straightness but not velocities of caput spermatozoa and yet caused immotility within 15 min, whereas DTT prolonged the maintenance of in vitro motility. The slight increases in kinematic parameters in the presence of DTT were enhanced by a 2-min preincubation with diamide. The finding that the effects of DTT and diamide were not compensatory suggests that the influence of the SH/S-S status on sperm movement is multifaceted, with decreasing sensitivity to stimulation upon sperm maturation. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Key words: Epididymis ; Efferent ducts ; Cell culture ; Immunocytochemistry ; Immunoprecipitation ; Man
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The way in which the human epididymis modifies spermatozoa during their sojourn in this structure might be clarified by knowledge of the nature of its secretions. We have examined the presence of several lysosomal hydrolases in human epididymal tissue and fluids, and their synthesis and secretion by monolayer cultures. Tissues were obtained from men undergoing orchidectomy for prostatic carcinoma. The enzymes cathepsin D and acid α-glucosidase were localised in the lysosomes of epithelial cells from the corpus epididymidis, by an immunocytochemical technique. Cathepsin D was also found in epithelial cells of the efferent ducts within lysosomes, apical vesicles and multivesicular bodies. No immunolocalisation of acid glucosidase in the efferent ducts or on the microvilli of the corpus was demonstrable. Cathepsin D, β-hexosaminidase (N-acetylglucosaminidase) and α-glucosidase were measurable in the luminal fluid from the human corpus epididymidis; β-hexosaminidase was secreted into the culture medium by confluent monolayers of epididymal and efferent duct cells. Immunoprecipitation of cell extracts and culture medium of these cultures incubated with 35S-methionine revealed that the precursors of cathepsin D and β-hexosaminidase were synthesized and secreted by such monolayers. Thus, active lytic enzymes are secreted by the human epididymis and could modify sperm membranes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Luminal perfusion ; Rat epididymis ; Epithelial structure ; Absorption ; Water transport
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The appearance of the rat epididymal epithelium changed when it was perfused in vivo through the lumen with unphysiologically high sodium ion concentrations; dilatation of intercellular spaces (ICS) at threshold concentrations of 30mM-Na+ in the cauda and about 55mM-Na+ in the corpus was associated with absorption of water from the lumen. Despite the distended ICS, junctional complexes appeared intact, and their integrity was confirmed by the exclusion of luminal horseradish peroxidase (HRP) from the ICS, and by demonstrating that circulating [3H]inulin did not enter the lumen. Smooth ER and lipid droplets in the principal cells of the corpus epididymidis were well maintained, and the preservation of granular ER in principal cells of the cauda epididymidis lent morphological support to the continued secretion of protein in this segment. However, occasional distension or involution of inner Golgi cisternae was evident in principal cells after 3–6 h perfusion. In contrast to multivesicular bodies of principal cells, the apical and basal vacuoles characteristic of clear cells changed in size with different perfusing solutions. When low Na+ concentrations were perfused large translucent vacuoles were frequently found in the apical cytoplasm of clear cells in the corpus and cauda epididymidis, and filled vacuoles became larger and showed a decrease in content density in the cauda epididymidis. These large vacuoles were absent from tissue perfused with high Na+ concentrations. Normal pinocytotic activity of both cell types was demonstrated by perfusing HRP which was taken up by the normal route in principal cells, with some transfer to the Golgi cisternae. By far the most HRP was accumulated in clear cell vacuoles irrespective of the composition of the perfusing solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Epididymal ultrastructure ; Transcytosis ; Protein transport ; Fluid-phase endocytosis ; Epididymal arterial perfusion ; Rat (Sprague-Dawley) ; Golden hamster ; Mouse (CB6/F1)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The transport of protein across the cells of the epididymal epithelium was studied using horseradish peroxidase. Transient vascular perfusion of the epididymis of the rat and golden hamster was achieved by pulsatile retrograde infusion into the testicular artery. Peroxidase was found in the interstitium and in the epithelium, located in vesicles, vacuoles and multivesicular bodies of principal, clear and apical cells. Similar findings were obtained in mice after systemic injection of the tracer. In the rat, discharge to the lumen was confirmed by the appearance of enzyme activity in luminal fluid from the caput epididymidis after local injection. The extent of transport amounted to no more than what has been considered leakage in physiological experiments, and the time-course of appearance complemented that found by electron microscopy. The level of transcytosis after pulsatile administration of peroxidase in vivo, as judged from the occurrence of tracer in the epithelium, was much less than that obtained during constant immersion in vitro. The protein was present in multivesicular bodies of principal cells and in vesicles of clear cells at short times after presentation in vitro, when it could not have arrived by endocytosis from the lumen. This suggests that routing of basal endocytic vesicles to the lysosomal apparatus occurs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Epididymis ; Monolayer culture ; Directed secretion ; Phosphatases ; Glucosaminidase ; Rat (Sprague-Dawley)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A cell culture system is characterised for monolayers of immature rat epididymal epithelial cells grown on permeable supports. Cover of the filters was achieved by days 4–5 and was maintained for 9–12 days. The secretion of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) into apical and basal compartments of culture chambers was monitored with time in culture for cells from the proximal and distal epididymis of 37-day-old animals. There was independent secretion of the three enzymes: secretion of NAG and AKP was mainly apical, that of ACP basal; daily secretion of ACP and AKP was constant throughout culture, that of NAG declined; there was greater secretion of NAG and AKP by cells from the proximal than the distal region. The initial high apical secretion of NAG is thought to reflect loss of enzyme from unattached cells, whereas the later AKP secretion is truly directional. Secretion was not influenced by the enzymes used in cell preparation. The cytotoxic agent Thimerosal inhibited secretion of all enzymes when placed beneath the cultures, indicating that secretion depended on viable cells, but initially stimulated release of AKP when applied above the cells possibly reflecting release from the cell membrane.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 9 (1984), S. 55-74 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: mouse ; sperm motility ; capacitation ; hyperactivation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Estimates were made of the proportion of freely motile mouse spermatozoa displaying hyperactivated motility by an objective photographic method employing stroboscopic illumination under dark-field conditions and examining displacements of the sperm head and bend angles of the sperm tail. In media known to support in vitro fertilisation hyperactivation gradually appeared reaching about 40% by 6 hr incubation, and it was not promoted by 2 mM caffeine or 0.1 mM Bt2 cAMP or washing the cells free of epididymal fluid. Raising the osmolarity of the medium to 400 mOSM with electrolytes, but not nonelectrolytes, did promote hyperactivation (60% by 2 hr) suggesting that the ionic strength of the medium was important. Hyperactivation in high ionic strength media could be prevented by removing or chelating Ca2+, or replacing Ca2+ with Ba2+ or Mg2+, when nonhyperactivated motility was maintained, but Sr2+, like Ca2+, permitted hyperactivated motility. Hyperactivation in low ionic strength medium could be promoted by the ionophore A23187, suggesting that Ca2+ movement into the cells is important. Of a range of glycolytic substrates tested supporting nonhyperactivated motility in the presence of lactate, only glucose supported hyperactivation. Addition to glucose -  or Ca2+  -  free, high ionic strength media after 2 hr increased hyperactivation immediately (glucose) or after a lag of 2 hr (Ca2+) suggesting that glucose acts on a Ca2+  -  primed system. Removal from high ionic strength medium, chelation of Ca2+ or inhibition of glucose metabolism did not prevent hyperactivation continuing once it had been initiated, indicating different requirements for initiation and maintenance of this form of motility.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: galactosyltransferase ; capacitation ; epididymis ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The effects of bovine mammary alpha-lactalbumin on the motility and zona-binding characteristics of mouse sperm were investigated. Two properties of sperm associated with capacitation, hyperactivated motility, and the ability of sperm to bind to the zona pellucida of oocytes were shown to be suppressed by alpha-lactalbumin. These inhibitory effects were not accompanied by changes in the percentage of motile cells or by differences in the velocity parameters of the hyperactivated and non-hyperactivated spermatozoa. Bovine serum albumin prevented and reversed the alpha-lactalbumin-induced suppression of hyperactivation. Sperm-zona pellucida binding was partially restored by lowering the alpha-lactalbumin concentration in the medium in which sperm were allowed to bind to the zona pellucida. The results suggest that mouse sperm are decapacitated by bovine mammary alpha-lactalbumin. The counteracting effect of bovine serum albumin to the suppressive action of alpha-lactalbumin on the flagellum suggests the involvement of a mechanism different from the action of alpha-lactalbumin on the sperm head inhibiting binding to the zona pellucida.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Gamete Research 14 (1986), S. 47-56 
    ISSN: 0148-7280
    Keywords: rat sperm ; osmotic swelling ; sperm maturation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The form that rat spermatozoa assume when swelling in hyposmotic media depends on the position of the cytoplasmic droplet, previous exposure to hypertonic media, and the stiffness of the flagellum. Bending at the end of the midpiece occurs when the swelling droplet is situated at this site; this occurs in midcaput cells, but sperm from more proximal sites do not bend in this fashion. Stiffening of caput sperm stored in vitro reduces the incidence of such midpiece bending but looping at the tip of the tail still occurs, and previous exposure of caput spermatozoa to hypertonic media also prevents hairpin bend formation. Mature sperm from the cauda are too stiff to form hairpin loops when placed in hypotonic media unless first treated with a penetrating disulphydryl-reducing agent, after which swollen spherical vesicles can result from very flexible flagella confined within an intact membrane. Long-chain acylcarnitines are more potent lytic agents than acylcholines, but, for both, chain lengths of 16 carbon atoms is optimal for preventing the swelling of rat caput sperm.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 248 (1987), S. 527-530 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Epididymal ultrastructure ; Peroxidase ; Protein transport ; Fluid-phase endocytosis ; Sprague-Dawley rat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experiments were performed to clarify the debate over the entry of circulating proteins into the epididymal lumen by use of the marker horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Epididymal tubules from the caput epididymidis of the rat were immersed in medium TC 199 containing HRP (3.5 mg/ ml) for 5 min to 3 h at 33° C. Sections were examined for the presence of tracer within the epithelial cells by electron microscopy. From 5 min to 3 h, vesicles containing peroxidase reaction products were found throughout the cytoplasm of the principal cells. Vesicles occurred close to both the basal and apical membranes, and many were found opening into the interstitial space and lumen, depending on the length of incubation. By 5 min labelled vesicles were infrequently found in the apical part of the cells. Reaction product was observed in the epididymal lumen adhering to the microvilli from 30 min of incubation onwards. At all periods of incubation peroxidase was present at the base of the epithelium and between the cells, but it was never found within the tight junctional complexes, and no reaction deposits were found within epithelial cells of tubules incubated in the absence of peroxidase. It is concluded that large molecules leaving the capillaries may enter the epididymal lumen in the caput by means of fluid-phase endocytosis.
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