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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8604
    Keywords: Zanzibar red colobus ; Procolobus kirkii ; charcoal eating ; geophagy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Zanzibar red colobus monkey is the only primate, aside from humans, known to eat charcoal in the wild. All age classes and both sexes eat charcoal, but only those groups living in perennial gardens or near human dwellings do so. The habit appears to be transmitted from mother to offspring by imitation, but how it developed in the first place is unknown. Sources of charcoal include charred stumps, logs, and branches, as well as that produced in kilns by humans. These charcoals adsorb organic materials, such as phenolics, particularly well and, as a consequence, remove these compounds, which have the potential to be toxic or interfere with digestion or both. The extreme inertness of charcoal makes it an unlikely source of minerals to the colobus. We conclude that, by eating charcoal, monkeys living in gardens with a high density of food species dominated by exotic trees — Indian almond and mango — are able to exploit this abundant food resource that is high in total phenolic content much more effectively than in the absence of charcoal. The young leaves of these exotic tree species are also very high in protein and highly digestible. The benefits of charcoal eating are most likely due to the fact that charcoal adsorbs phenolics better than proteins. This may explain in large part why the birth rates and population densities of the colobus living in the Indian almond and mango habitat adjacent to the Jozani Forest are significantly higher than those in the ground-water forest. The population density of colobus in this small area is the highest ever recorded for a nonhuman anthropoid (≥700/km 2 ). It may not, however, be a stable situation, as there are indications of higher levels of aggression, lower recruitment into the medium-juvenile size class, and overbrowsing.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-8604
    Keywords: Procolobus kirkii ; charcoal ; feeding ; adsorption ; phenolics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Colobus monkeys on the African island of Zanzibar eat charcoal from burned trees and lying near kilns, where it is produced for cooking. This behavior may be a learned response for counteracting toxicity due to phenolic and similar compounds that occur in significant concentrations in the Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) leaves and mango (Mangifera indica) leaves which constitute a major part of their diet. Accordingly, we studied the adsorption of organic materials from hot water extracts of Indian almond and mango leaves by five charcoals collected in Zanzibar. For comparison, we also evaluated three commercial powdered activated charcoals. Three African charcoals collected at kilns adsorbed more organic material than two kinds collected from burned tree stumps. The commercial activated charcoals adsorbed the organic material best, as expected, yet the African kiln charcoals adsorbed surprisingly well. Thus, the hypothesized function of charcoal eating is supported.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Megakaryocyte differentiation is a lengthy process with cells moving through a continuum delineated by the sequential expression of specific gene products. The limited number of primary cells available from marrow for analysis has brought attention to some leukemic cell lines which show enhanced megakaryocyte marker expression following incubation with inducing agents, the most common of which is phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). We developed an alternative induction protocol for the megakaryocytic leukemic cell line CMK, which involved incubation of the cells with IL-3 and the nucleoside analog, ribavirin, for 1-2 weeks. This treatment was neither toxic nor cytostatic and yielded increased levels of the surface glycoproteins GPIIb/IIIA and GPIb-IX. Levels of some megakaryocytic messages (GPIIIa, GPIX) showed a marked rise by 12 days of incubation in the inducer combination. This was due to a synergistic interaction between IL-3 and ribavirin which influenced both transcriptional and posttranscriptional events. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of large polyploid cells, with morphological features similar to those of megakaryocytes, in the induced cultures. Analysis of the heterogeneity of response in the cell population to the induction regimen after several days of treatment suggested that cells which failed to display surface markers had been stimulated by the inducers but did not have sufficient time to complete expression of that marker. The results were consistent with the view that the cells in the starting population were distributed along a temporal expression pathway, and those which were first to express the earliest marker would also lead in the expression of a later marker. The order of expression was the same as that during normal megakaryocyte development. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0646
    Keywords: tiazofurin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tiazofurin is an interesting drug now entering Phase I trials, with marked preclinical antitumor activity against P388 and L1210 leukemias, and the Lewis lung carcinoma. Schedule dependency favoring frequent administration has been noted. The drug has a novel mechanism of action, being metabolized to an inhibitory cofactor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Tiazofurin is widely distributed after i.v. administration exhibiting a triphasic pattern of plasma decay, with a terminal half-life of 3–16 h in the three species studied. Approximately 90% of the drug was excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 h. A significant potential for the slower release of intracellularly retained drug exists. Anticipated organ toxicities based on the studies described include myelotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These were mild and reversible at lower doses, and were not seen at levels corresponding to the starting doses in man. A potential for hyperuricemia exists; this should be easily controllable by the use of allopurinol, without compromising the drug's antitumor effect. Phase I trials under the sponsorship of the NCI are underway in a number of institutions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0646
    Keywords: merbarone
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Merbarone was developed to clinical trial stage on the basis of its ‘curative’ activity against P388 and L1210 leukemias and moderate activity against B16 melanoma and M5076 sarcoma. Its activity appears to be schedule-dependent favoring a longer duration of administration. The mechanism of action of merbarone is not yet established but it does induce single strand breaks in DNA apparently without binding to DNA. The pharmacokinetic data in the dog indicate that clearance mechanisms may be saturable. Merbarone is hydroxylated at the 4′ position in the rat, mouse and dog, and glucuronidated in the dog. Parent drug and the hydroxy metabolite are excreted in the urine. If saturable clearance mechanisms also pertain to man, this will mean that infusion rate (and therefore steady state concentrations reached) may be a significant factor in determining acute toxicity. Preclinical toxicology studies revealed that major target tissues are in the lymphoid organs, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract and kidney. Some behavioral signs of reversible central nervous system toxicity were observed. Phase I trials have commenced using only a 5-day continuous intravenous infusion schedule based on the preclinical data. The pharmacokinetic information from these trials will be crucial for further clinical development of the compound, including selection of the optimal schedule(s) for phase II/III evaluation.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0173-2803
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Pervaporation experiments of pure water and 2-propanol through poly-dimethylsiloxane membranes were carried out in order to study the effect of the interaction between permeant and membrane material on pervaporation phenomena. From the effect of downstream pressure on the pervaporation rate, the saturation vapor pressure of water in the membrane was determined to be 2.799 × 103 Pa (21.0 mmHg), which is the same as the literature value, whereas that of 2-propanol in the membrane was estimated to be 5.865 × 103 Pa (44.0 mm Hg), which is 8.53 × 102 Pa (6.4 mmHg) higher than that of pure 2-propanol. In the differential scanning calorimetry analyses of permeants in the membrane, it was evident that the state of 2-propanol in the polydimethylsiloxane membrane was different from that of bulk 2-propanol. On the other hand, the state of water in the membrane was assigned to that of bulk water. Throughout the present study, it was observed that the interaction between permeant and membrane material plays an important role in determining pervaporation phenomena.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 17 (1971), S. 754-756 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 19 (1973), S. 181-183 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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