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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Dordrecht u.a. : Kluwer
    Call number: M 93.0708
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xii, 394 S.
    ISBN: 0792305868
    Classification: A.3.12.
    Language: English
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A network of seven Huon pine ring-width chronologies is constructed from sites ranging in elevation from 200 to 950 metres above sea level in western Tasmania. The chronologies are analysed individually and collectively to explore Huon pine‘s response to climate as a function of elevation. Three chronologies from greater than 700 metres in elevation exhibit a strong, direct response to temperature for most growing season months (p〈0.05), while three from below 700 metres exhibit a weaker, direct response to growing-season temperature, and a strong, inverse relationship with temperature of the prior season of growth, also significant at the 0.05 level. Moisture availability at these temperate rainforest sites is less growth-limiting than temperature, and significant correlations for January (inverse) and April (direct) of the year of growth largely reflect the inter-relationships between temperature, precipitation and cloudiness, and their combined influence on photosynthesis, particularly at higher-elevation sites. A rotated Principal Component Analysis reveals a clear grouping of the high and low-elevation chronologies, represented by the first and second eigenvectors, respectively. The 700 metre Lake Marilyn Low chronology is revealed to be a transitional site between the two groupings, and likely reflects an important climatic ecotone where both temperature and photosynthetically-active radiation drop below optimum levels for the species, and begin to directly inhibit growth. Tasmania's west coast climate has been shown to exhibit a distinct vertical structure, exemplified by a subsidence-inversion layer above 900 metres. Temperature increases slightly with altitude above 930 metres (the elevation at which a peak in daily minimum and maximum humidity levels is observed) before decreasing again. A dense, orographically-generated cloud-zone of reduced light and temperature has a mean altitude between 700 and 900 metres, with the steepest drop in both air and soil temperature exhibited between 850 and 930 metres. This structure can account for Huon pine‘s changing response to climate with elevation as described in this paper, and reinforces the importance of careful site selection for dendroclimatic research. In the case of reconstructing warm-season temperature from Tasmanian Huon pine, the desired signal might be maximised through sampling at the few rare, subalpine stands which have been located in western Tasmania. The great length afforded by the low-elevation Huon pine resource may ultimately yield a far more detailed reconstruction of regional climate throughout the Holocene, with respect to a vertical profile, following the development of more sound, mechanistically-based response models.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  A tree-ring chronology network recently developed from the subantarctic forests provides an opportunity to study long-term climatic variability at higher latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Fifty long (1911–1985), homogeneous records of monthly mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) from the southern latitudes (15–65 °S) were intercorrelated on a seasonal basis to establish the most consistent, long-term Trans-Polar teleconnections during this century. Variations in summer MSLP between the South America-Antarctic Peninsula and the New Zealand sectors of the Southern Ocean are significantly correlated in a negative sense (r=−0.53, P〈0.001). Climatically sensitive chronologies from Tierra del Fuego (54–55°) and New Zealand (39–47°) were used to develop verifiable reconstructions of summer (November to February) MSLP for both sectors of the Southern Ocean. These reconstructions, which explain between 37 and 43% of the instrumentally recorded pressure variance, indicate that inverse trends in MSLP from diametrically opposite sides of Antarctica have prevailed during the past two centuries. However, the strength of this relationship varies over time. Differences in normalized MSLP between the New Zealand and the South America-Antarctic Peninsula sectors were used to develop a Summer Trans-Polar Index (STPI), which represents an index of sea-level pressure wavenumber one in the Southern Hemisphere higher latitudes. Tree-ring based reconstructions of STPI show significant differences in large-scale atmospheric circulation between the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. Predominantly-negative STPI values during the nineteenth century are consistent with more cyclonic activity and lower summer temperatures in the New Zealand sector during the 1800s. In contrast, cyclonic activity appears to have been stronger in the mid-twentieth than previously for the South American sector of the Southern Ocean. Recent variations in MSLP in both regions are seen as part of the long-term dynamics of the atmosphere connecting opposite sides of Antarctica. A detailed analysis of the MSLP and STPI reconstructions in the time and frequency domains indicates that much of the interannual variability is principally confined to frequency bands with a period around 3.3–3.6 y. Cross spectral analysis between the STPI reconstruction and the Southern Oscillation Index suggests that teleconnections between the tropical ocean and extra-tropical MSLP variations may be influencing climate fluctuations at southern latitudes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: Indonesia's climate is dominated by the equatorial monsoon system, and has been linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events that often result in extensive droughts and floods over the Indonesian archipelago. In this study we investigate ENSO-related signals in a tree-ring δ18O record (1900–2007) of Javanese teak. Our results reveal a clear influence of Warm Pool (central Pacific) El Niño events on Javanese tree-ring δ18O, and no clear signal of Cold Tongue (eastern Pacific) El Niño events. These results are consistent with the distinct impacts of the two ENSO flavors on Javanese precipitation, and illustrate the importance of considering ENSO flavors when interpreting palaeoclimate proxy records in the tropics.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 186 (1960), S. 251-252 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Jones and Carter1,2 have shown that a proliferative synovitis can be induced in guinea pigs by the subcutaneous or intravenous injection of bacterial polysaccharide complexes. These findings raised the possibility of inducing a similar effect by the intra-articular injection of other ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 180 (1957), S. 708-708 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The fluorescence produced by heating the paper at 100 C. for 15 min.3 proved to be too insensitive for satisfactory location. Heating after immersion in ton6 increa'ses tne sensitivity, but we have now found that treating amino- or imino-acids with o-coumaric acid dissolved in acetone produces a ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We describe an improved tree-ring reconstruction of mean warm-season (November–April) temperatures for Tasmania from Huon pine. This record extends back to 1600 BC and is based on a tree-ring chronology that was processed to retain as much low-frequency variance as possible. The resulting reconstruction explains 46.6% of the variance and verifies significantly when compared to withheld instrumental data. Cross-spectral analysis of actual and estimated temperatures over the 1886–1991 common period indicates that most of the unexplained variance is at periods 〈 12 years in length. At periods 〉 12 years, the squared coherency ranges between 0.6–0.8, and the cross-spectral gain indicates that the amplitude of the reconstruction is a nearly unbiased estimate of the true temperature amplitude. Therefore, this reconstruction should be especially useful for studying multi-decadal temperature variability in the Tasmanian sector of the Southern Hemisphere over the past 3592 years. To this end, we examined the time evolution of low-frequency temperature amplitude fluctuations and found evidence for a 35% amplitude reduction after AD 100 that persisted until about AD 1900. Since that time, the low-frequency temperature amplitude has systematically increased. We also show how this reconstruction is related to large-scale sea surface temperatures (SST) in the Indian Ocean and eastward to the dateline. Pointwise correlations between the Tasmanian record and SSTs reveal a relationship that extends across the southern Indian Ocean and towards the Arabian Sea. This pattern is largely determined by inter-decadal temperature variability, with correlations in this 〉 10-year bandwidth commonly exceeding 0.6 over most of the southern Indian and southwestern Pacific sectors. A rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis reveals that the pattern of pointwise correlations found between the temperature reconstruction and SSTs is largely explained by the linear combination of three orthogonal modes of SST variability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Red spruce decline ; Environmental stress ; Dendroecology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Long-term growth patterns of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) were analyzed from increment cores collected from over 1000 trees at 48 sites in the eastern United States. Principal objectives were the evaluation of the distribution, timing, and uniqueness of observed patterns of decreasing radial growth during the past 25 years and the examination of stand competition and climate as factors contributing to observed changes. Our analyses focused on historical records of spruce mortality and approximately 200 years of radial growth data to search for historical precedents for current trends. In this work we have used time series analysis to detect the temporal frequency of significant negative or positive shifts in radial growth rates, an analysis of relationships between a stand competition index and observed changes in growth and mortality, and modeling of past growth-climate relationships to determine whether recent growth changes could be predicted based on climate. Collectively, these analyses indicate that the observed growth decreases of surviving red spruce trees at northeastern sites with high mortality have been anomalous during the past 20 to 25 years with respect to both historical annual growth patterns and past relationships to climate or stand development at these sites. In general, reductions in radial increment that have also been noted at southern high elevation sites but not at low elevations occurred 5 to 10 years later than at northern sites and represent less substantive departures from growth trends predicted by linear climate models. These results suggest that regional and not local stresses have triggered the observed decline in radial growth of red spruce at these sites. While climatic change may have contributed to observed changes, the degree of radial growth suppression observed is greater than would be expected based on past growth-climate relationships. This unique relationship of growth to climate suggests the influences of either recent, unique combinations of climatic stresses or the possibly interactive intervention of other regional-scale stresses, such as atmospheric pollution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract  Distinct periods of warmth have been identified in instrumental records for New Zealand and the surrounding southwest Pacific over the past 120 years. Whether this warming is due to natural climate variability or the effects of increasing greenhouse gases is difficult to determine given the limited length of instrumental record. Longer records derived from tree rings can help reduce uncertainties in detection of possible causes of climatic change, although relatively few such records have been developed for the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, we describe five temperature-sensitive tree-ring width chronologies for New Zealand which place the recent warming trend into a long-term (pre-anthropogenic) context. Included are three pink pine (Halocarpus biformis) chronologies, two for Stewart Island and one for the North Island of New Zealand. Two silver pine (Lagarostrobus colensoi) series, one each from the North and South Islands, are updated from previous work. The length of record ranges from AD 1700 for Putara, North Island to AD 1400 for Ahaura, South Island. The pink and silver pine are different species from those used previously to reconstruct temperatures for New Zealand. All five chronologies are positively and significantly correlated with warm-season (November-April) individual station temperature records, a New Zealand-wide surface air temperature index and gridded land/marine temperatures for New Zealand and vicinity. The highest 20 and 40-year growth periods in all five tree-ring series coincide with the New Zealand temperature increase after 1950. An exception is found for the 40-year interval at Ahaura, the least temperature-sensitive of the five sites. A t-test comparison indicates that these recent growth intervals are significantly higher (0.01 to 0.0001 level) than any of those prior to the twentieth century for three of the five sites, dating as far back as AD 1500. The results suggest that the recent warming has been distinctive, although not clearly unprecedented, relative to temperature conditions inferred from tree-ring records of prior centuries.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉Multidecadal "megadroughts" were a notable feature of the climate of the American Southwest over the Common era, yet we still lack a comprehensive theory for what caused these megadroughts and why they curiously only occurred before about 1600 CE. Here, we use the Paleo Hydrodynamics Data Assimilation product, in conjunction with radiative forcing estimates, to demonstrate that megadroughts in the American Southwest were driven by unusually frequent and cold central tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) excursions in conjunction with anomalously warm Atlantic SSTs and a locally positive radiative forcing. This assessment of past megadroughts provides the first comprehensive theory for the causes of megadroughts and their clustering particularly during the Medieval era. This work also provides the first paleoclimatic support for the prediction that the risk of American Southwest megadroughts will markedly increase with global warming.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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