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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-01-14
    Type: paper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: During early August 1997, the ozone column density measured over Lauder was unusually low, with a minimum value of 222 Dobson Units (DU) at August 10. These observations are striking since in August, during the Austral winter, the ozone column density should be heading towards its yearly maximum; The August mean ozone column density measured over Lauder between 1987 and 1996 was 348(+/-28) DU, the lowest monthly average in these ten years was 255 DU. Regular altitude profile measurements of ozone, performed at Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC) station Lauder, make it possible to do a detailed, altitude-resolved, study of the low ozone observations. The measurements show ozone poor air in two altitude regions of the stratosphere: A 'high region', extending from the 600 K to the 1050 K isentrope (25 to 34 km), and a 'low region', below about 550 K (22 km). High resolution reverse trajectory maps of potential vorticity (PV) and ozone mixing ratio, based on the assumption of passive advection by the large-scale three-dimensional winds, show that in the 'high region' the ozone poor air was part of the polar vortex, which was centered off the pole and extended over Lauder for several days, while in the 'low region' the ozone poor air was mixed in from low latitudes. A rapid recovery of the ozone column density, by more than 110 DU within 24 hours, was observed when in the low region an ozone rich filament of the polar vortex moved over Lauder, while in the high region the (ozone poor) high part of the vortex moved away.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference; 319-322; NASA/CP-1998-207671/PT1
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A microwave instrument developed for operational measurements of ozone for the Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change is discussed. The instrument observes two spectral lines near 3-mm wavelength with a bandwidth of 630 MHz, allowing profile retrieval from 20 to 70 km. The observing technique and calibration procedures are described. The measurement forward model and retrieval algorithm are formulated. Preliminary comparisons with a colocated ground-based lidar and the SAGE II instrument are presented. The measurements are shown to typically agree to within 5 to 10 percent.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 97; 2541-254
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of two years of data obtained with a ground-based microwave instrument is given. Intercomparisons with data obtained by the co-located JPL lidar and by SAGE 2 during near overpasses of the site are discussed, as are comparisons with mesospheric data taken earlier by SME and LIMS. Observations of diurnal variations of mesospheric ozone are shown.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Part 2; p 645-648
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A practical procedure for the retrieval of ozone vertical profiles from ground-based high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra has been developed. The analysis is based on a multilayer line-by-line forward model and a semi-empirical version of the optimal estimation inversion method of Rodgers. The 1002.6-1003.2 cm(exp -1) spectral interval has been selected for the analysis on the basis of synthetic spectrum calculations. This interval contains numerous ozone lines covering a range of intensities and providing retrieval sensitivity from ground level to about 35 km. Characterization of the method and an error analysis have been performed. For a spectral resolution of 0.05-0.01 cm(exp -1) and a signal-to-noise ratio greater than or equal to 100 the retrieval is stable with a vertical resolution of approximately 5 km attainable near the surface degrading to approximately 10 km in the stratosphere. Synthetic spectra studies show that the a priori profile and weak constraints selected for the retrievals introduce no significant biases for a wide range of ozone profiles.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 2; 193-194; LC-95-67220
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone has been recorded by lidars and microwave radiometers within the ground-based Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), and by the space-borne Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet instruments (SBUV), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE), and Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). Climatological mean differences between these instruments are typically smaller than 5% between 25 and 50 km. Ozone anomaly time series from all instruments, averaged from 35 to 45 km altitude, track each other very well and typically agree within 3 to 5%. SBUV seems to have a slight positive drift against the other instruments. The corresponding 1979 to 1999 period from a transient simulation by the fully coupled MAECHAM4-CHEM chemistry climate model reproduces many features of the observed anomalies. However, in the upper stratosphere the model shows too low ozone values and too negative ozone trends, probably due to an underestimation of methane and a consequent overestimation of ClO. The combination of all observational data sets provides a very consistent picture, with a long-term stability of 2% or better. Upper stratospheric ozone shows three main features: (1) a decline by 10 to 15% since 1980, due to chemical destruction by chlorine; (2) two to three year fluctuations by 5 to 10%, due to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO); (3) an 11-year oscillation by about 5%, due to the 11-year solar cycle. The 1979 to 1997 ozone trends are larger at the southern mid-latitude station Lauder (45 S), reaching 8%/decade, compared to only about 6%/decade at Table Mountain (35 N), Haute Provence/Bordeaux (approximately equal to 45 N), and Hohenpeissenberg/Bern(approximately equal to 47 N). At Lauder, Hawaii (20 N), Table Mountain, and Haute Provence, ozone residuals after subtraction of QBO- and solar cycle effects have levelled off in recent years, or are even increasing. Assuming a turning point in January 1997, the change of trend is largest at southern mid-latitude Lauder, +11%/decade, compared to +7%/decade at northern mid-latitudes. This points to a beginning recovery of upper stratospheric ozone. However, chlorine levels are still very high and ozone will remain vulnerable. At this point the most northerly mid-latitude station, Hohenpeissenberg/Bern differs from the other stations, and shows much less clear evidence for a beginning recovery, with a change of trend in 1997 by only +3%/decade. In fact, record low upper stratospheric ozone values were observed at Hohenpeissenberg/Bern, and to a lesser degree at Table Mountain and Haute Provence, in the winters 2003/2004 and 2004/2005.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Program organized a Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC) held in July-August 1989 at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The primary instruments participating in this campaign were several that had been developed by NASA for the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change: the JPL ozone lidar at TMF, the Goddard Space Flight Center trailer-mounted ozone lidar which was moved to TMF for this comparison, and the Millitech/LaRC microwave radiometer. To assess the performance of these new instruments, a validation/intercomparison campaign was undertaken using established techniques: balloon ozonesondes launched by personnel from the Wallops Flight Facility and from NOAA Geophysical Monitoring for Climate Change (GMCC) (now Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory), a NOAA GMCC Dobson spectrophotometer, and a Brewer spectrometer from the Atmospheric Environment Service of Canada, both being used for column as well as Umkehr profile retrievals. All of these instruments were located at TMF and measurements were made as close together in time as possible to minimize atmospheric variability as a factor in the comparisons. Daytime rocket measurements of ozone were made by Wallops Flight Facility personnel using ROCOZ-A instruments launched from San Nicholas Island. The entire campaign was conducted as a blind intercomparison, with the investigators not seeing each others data until all data had been submitted to a referee and archived at the end of the 2-week period (July 20 to August 2, 1989). Satellite data were also obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE 2) aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aboard Nimbus 7. An examination of the data has found excellent agreement among the techniques, especially in the 20- to 40-km range. As expected, there was little atmospheric variability during the intercomparison, allowing for detailed statistical comparisons at a high level of precision. This overview paper summarizes the campaign and provides a 'road map' to subsequent papers in this issue by the individual instrument teams which will present more detailed analysis of the data and conclusions.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: NASA-CR-203123 , NAS 1.26:203123 , Paper-95JD00509 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 100; D5; 9193-9207
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Space-based measurements of reflected sunlight in the near-infrared (NIR) region promise to yield accurate and precise observations of the global distribution of atmospheric CO2. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is a future NASA mission, which will use this technique to measure the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) with the precision and accuracy needed to quantify CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales (approx.1000 x 1000 sq km and to characterize their variability on seasonal timescales. Here, we have used the OCO retrieval algorithm to retrieve XCO2 and surface pressure from space-based Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) measurements and from coincident ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the O2 A band at 0.76 mm and the 1.58 mm CO2 band for Park Falls,Wisconsin. Even after accounting for a systematic error in our representation of the O2 absorption cross sections, we still obtained a positive bias between SCIAMACHY and FTS XCO2 retrievals of approx.3.5%. Additionally, the retrieved surface pressures from SCIAMACHY systematically underestimate measurements of a calibrated pressure sensor at the FTS site. These findings lead us to speculate about inadequacies in the forward model of our retrieval algorithm. By assuming a 1% intensity offset in the O2 A band region for the SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrieval, we significantly improved the spectral fit and achieved better consistency between SCIAMACHY and FTS XCO2 retrievals. We compared the seasonal cycle of XCO2 at Park Falls from SCIAMACHY and FTS retrievals with calculations of the Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (MATCH/CASA) and found a good qualitative agreement but with MATCH/CASA underestimating the measured seasonal amplitude. Furthermore, since SCIAMACHY observations are similar in viewing geometry and spectral range to those of OCO, this study represents an important test of the OCO retrieval algorithm and validation concept using NIR spectra measured from space. Finally, we argue that significant improvements in precision and accuracy could be obtained from a dedicated CO2 instrument such as OCO, which has much higher spectral and spatial resolutions than SCIAMACHY. These measurements would then provide critical data for improving our understanding of the carbon cycle and carbon sources and sinks.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: Journal Of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 111
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: There is presently renewed interest in diurnal variations of stratospheric and mesospheric ozone for the purpose of supporting homogenization of records of various ozone measurements that are limited by the technique employed to being made at certain times of day. We have made such measurements for 19 years using a passive microwave remote sensing technique at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) in Hawaii, which is a primary station in the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). We have recently reprocessed these data with hourly time resolution to study diurnal variations. We inspected differences between pairs of the ozone spectra (e.g., day and night) from which the ozone profiles are derived to determine the extent to which they may be contaminated by diurnally varying systematic instrumental or measurement effects. These are small, and we have reduced them further by selecting data that meet certain criteria that we established. We have calculated differences between profiles measured at different times: morning-night, afternoon-night, and morning-afternoon and have intercompared these with like profiles derived from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (Aura-MLS), the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS-MLS),t he Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet version 2 (SBUV2) measurements. Differences between averages of coincident profiles are typically less than 1.5 percent of typical nighttime values over most of the covered altitude range with some exceptions. We calculated averages of ozone values for each hour from the Mauna Loa microwave data, and normalized these to the average for the first hour after midnight for comparison with corresponding values calculated with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We found that the measurements and model output mostly agree to better than 1.5 percent of the midnight value, with one noteworthy exception: The measured morning-night values are significantly (2-3 percent) higher than the modeled ones from 3.2 to 1.8 hPa (approximately 39-43 km), and there is evidence that the measured values are increasing compared to the modeled values before sunrise in this region.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN22337 , Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ISSN 1680-7316) (e-ISSN 1680-7324); 14; 7255-7272
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: High spectral resolution (0.003/ cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5 deg N, 155.6 deg W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4 - 16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first two years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4 - 16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32 deg N and 45 deg S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4 - 16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during 3 the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997-1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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