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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-9591
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9591
    Keywords: International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ; Fusion Energy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract This report presents the results of a U.S. review of the 1996 Detailed Design Report (DDR) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project. It was prepared by a panel established by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) and was subsequently endorsed by FESAC and provided to the USDOE. Copies of the charge and transmittal letters are incorporated at the end of this paper. Also incorporated in this paper are the reports of several subpanels established to provide detailed review and recommendations on specific topics. The authors of those subpanel reports are acknowledged in the text. The ITER was subsequently reduced in size and scope; this review refers to the full-size ITER design as it was completed in 1996.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of fusion energy 2 (1982), S. 207-224 
    ISSN: 1572-9591
    Keywords: tokamaks ; fusion reactors ; plasma physics ; ignition ; transport ; performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Studies have been performed to explore various plasma burn scenarios for a tokamak test reactor which could follow the next generation of large tokamak experiments. Tradeoffs between an ignited burning plasma and a sub-ignited driven plasma are examined in terms of device size and performance as a fusion engineering test facility. It is found that plasma performance levels, measured by ignition margin, amplification factorQ, and fusion power output, increase with device size, more optimistic transport scaling laws, lower magnetic field ripple, and higherΒ. The performance of a generally low stress (B 0=4 T) reference device, with major radiusR=4.5 m and minor radiusa=1.3 m in a D-shaped (κ=1.6) plasma has been evaluated over a wide range of operating parameters. In particular, a moderate fusion power output of 300 MW is obtained, the driven plasma havingQ≅ 10, an edge ripple of 1%, and a density ranging between 1.0 and 1.5×1014 cm−3. The same device operated at a higher general level of stress (B 0=5.3 T) is predicted to achieve ignition, but is not required for the mission of an engineering test facility and would entail greater technical risk.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of fusion energy 2 (1982), S. 59-70 
    ISSN: 1572-9591
    Keywords: tandem mirrors ; fusion reactor ; D-D fuel cycle
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Requirements for D-D barrier tandem mirror reactors are calculated from an equilibrium power balance model. To obtain adequate plasmaQ and reasonable power density, axisymmetric configurations are required to decrease barrier length and radial transport and to increase central cell beta. We find that for a reactor producing 900 MW net electric power from aQ=6.5 plasma, a central cell length of 225 m, maximumB of 15 T, and neutral beam injection energy of 700 keV are necessary. In addition to high central cell beta (∼70%), high barrier beta (∼40%) is needed to allow the ECRH power required to reduce the barrier potential. Using too much barrier ECRH power results in a decrease inQ. Nuclear elastic scattering of fusion products plays an important role in the overall plasma power balance. When nuclear scattering and coulomb scattering are included, the plasmaQ value is increased by more than 40% compared to the case when coulomb scattering alone is considered.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Fluids 1 (1989), S. 2229-2238 
    ISSN: 1089-7666
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Plasma flow measurements in the presheath have been performed using two types of directional electric "Mach'' probes, in the PISCES facility at UCLA [J. Nucl. Mater. 121, 277 (1984)]. A fast scanning versatile probe combination has been developed, which operates simultaneously as a "magnetized'' Mach probe, an "unmagnetized'' Mach probe (with characteristic probe size greater than and smaller than ion gyroradius, respectively), and an emissive probe. Presheaths have been investigated by inserting a small object at the center of the plasma column. Variations in plasma flow velocity, density, and potential along the presheath have been deduced by fluid and kinetic theories. A comparison is made between Mach numbers obtained from the magnetized probe and the unmagnetized probe. Incorporation of shear viscosity of order ∼0.5nmiD⊥ in the cross-field transport along the presheath seems best to model the results. The cross-field diffusivity (D⊥) is found to scale approximately proportional to B−1/2, with magnitude about 4× larger than Bohm in the PISCES plasma. The effect of an electrical bias applied to the object on the presheath characteristics is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Plasma-neutral phenomena in the edge plasma and scrape-off layer of the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research [G.H. Wolf and the TEXTOR Team, J. Nucl. Mater. 122&123, 1124 (1984)] with the toroidal belt Advanced Limiter Test (ALT-II) [D.M. Goebel et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 162–164, 115 (1989)] are simulated using the code package B2-EIRENE [D. Reiter et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1579 (1991)]. Spatially-constant, anomalous radial transport coefficients (D,V,χ) are used for fitting measured electron temperature and density profiles. Primary neutral fluxes are determined by plasma fluxes to material surfaces, and Dα emissions are predicted from them. Comparison of the predicted Dα emission with measurements indicates a critical need, in predictive modeling, for a self-consistent model of fluxes to material surfaces that are parallel to the magnetic field. Appropriate factors are calculated for deducing D+ source rates from Dα emissions measured in various locations, taking into account molecular processes and spatially varying plasma parameters; values range from 17 to 28 ions/photon. Ion fluxes lost to pumps or the wall must be explicitly re-introduced as neutral fluxes at the outer boundary. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Physics of Plasmas 3 (1996), S. 1545-1568 
    ISSN: 1089-7674
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The dynamics of a charged particle in a magnetic field perturbed by electrostatic waves propagating transverse to the magnetic field has been investigated. Depending on the number of perturbing waves, the magnitude of the perturbation and the perturbation frequency (ν=r/s=ω/ω0, where r and s are relatively prime integers, and ω0 is the cyclotron frequency), the particle motion can exhibit either a small deviation from simple cyclotron motion or stochastic motion over phase space. The latter case is found to correspond to particle heating and anomalous transport. In the case of cyclotron harmonic perturbations (superharmonic case, s=1), the phase space of the particle is covered by a stochastic web, inside of which the particle motion is chaotic. The particle can, in principle, be heated to very high energy. However, if the wave frequency is some fraction of the ion cyclotron frequency (subharmonic case, s≥2), the heating range is limited. © 1996 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 70 (1999), S. 2997-3006 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A detailed study of the harmonic technique, which exploits the generation of harmonics resulting from excitation of the nonlinearity of the single Langmuir probe characteristic, is presented. The technique is used to measure electron temperature and its fluctuations in tokamak plasmas and the technical issues relevant to extending the technique to high bandwidth (200 kHz) are discussed. The technique has been implemented in a fast reciprocating probe in the TEXTOR tokamak, gaining the ability to study denser and hotter plasmas than previously possible. A corrected analytical expression is derived for the harmonic currents. Measurement of the probe current by inductive pickup is introduced to improve electrical isolation and bandwidth. The temperature profiles in the boundary plasma of TEXTOR have been measured with high spatial (∼2 mm) and temporal (200 kHz) resolution and compared to those obtained with a double probe. The exact expansion of the probe characteristic in terms of Bessel functions is compared to a computationally efficient power series. Various aspects of the interpretation of the measurement are discussed such as the influence of plasma potential and density fluctuations. The technique is well suited to study fast phenomena such as transient plasma discharges or turbulence and turbulent transport in plasmas. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: An 8×8 array of Langmuir probes has been developed for measuring turbulent plasma parameters in tokamak edge plasmas. Fluctuations in plasma density ñ(r,θ,t) and floating potential φ˜f(r,θ,t) can be measured by the diagnostic, as well as the steady state (dc), profiles in n¯e(r,θ) and φ¯f(r,θ). The signal from each probe is processed by individual custom pre-amplifier circuits and the data from all probes are acquired simultaneously by a custom CAMAC based data acquisition system. This data acquisition system has 10 bit resolution with a maximum speed of 20 MS/s and has applications for various types of tokamak diagnostic arrays. Design considerations for the probe array and data acquisition system are discussed. Preliminary results from the probe array will be presented. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9591
    Keywords: Plasma impurities ; divertor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Future generation fusion reactors and tokamaks will require dissipative divertors to handle the high particle and heat loads leaving the core plasma (100–400 MW/m2 in ITER). A radiative divertor is proposed as a possible scenario, utilizing a hydrogen target gas to disperse the plasma momentum and trace impurity radiation to dissipate the plasma heat flux. Introducing an impurity into the target hydrogen gas enhances the radiative power loss but may lead to a significant impurity backflow to the main plasma. Thus, impurity flow control represents a crucial design concern. Such impurity flows are studied experimentally in this thesis. The PISCES-A linear plasma device (n ≤ 3 × 1019 m−3, kT e ≤ 20 eV) has been used to simulate a gas target divertor. To study the transport of impurities, a trace amount of impurity gas (i.e., neon and argon) is puffed near the target plate along with the hydrogen gas. Varying the hydrogen gas puffing rate permits us to study the effects of various background plasma conditions on the transport of impurities. A 1-1/2-D fluid code has been developed to solve the continuity and momentum equations for a neutral and singly ionized impurity in a hydrogen background plasma. The results indicate an axial reduction in the impurity concentration upstream from the impurity puffing source. Impurity entrainment is more effective for higher hydrogen target pressures (and for higher hydrogen plasma densities). However, if there is a reversal of the background plasma flow, impurity particles can propagate past the plasma flow reversal point and are then no longer entrained.
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