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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 42 (1975), S. 529-532 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract There is an empirical function of the heights of tides on the Sun produced by Venus, Earth, and Jupiter whose period is nearly equal to that of the 11-yr sunspot cycle (Wood, 1972). This period match has been used in suggestions that planetary tides cause sunspots and, indirectly, terrestrial climate changes and earthquakes. We derive the period of the tidal function in terms of the planetary orbital periods and show that it is artificially lengthened by aliasing. Furthermore, there exists a class of functions whose measure in frequency space is so great that, in the absence of a physical justification for preferring one member, no statistically significant period match can possibly be made with current sunspot data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract An analysis of radio and FIR emission in over 1500IRAS selected galaxies produces a good linear correlationbetween radio and FIR luminosity, indicating that star formationin normal field galaxies dominates the infrared luminosityin the local volume. Galaxies with clear radio-excess (definedas having at least5 times larger radio flux over expected from FIR) are identified as hosting a radio AGN, and they account for onlyabout 1% of the whole sample. This fraction increases to 10% among themore luminous galaxies with L 1.4GHz≥ 1023 W Hz-1 (equivalently L 60μm ≥ 1011 L⊙), however. The characteristic mid-IR excess of a Seyfert nucleus is ubiquitously present amongthe radio-excess objects, suggesting that mid-IR excess isa robust tracer of an AGN despite the high mid-IR opacity.We conclude that about 30% of the luminous infrared galaxies(L 60μm ≥ 1011 L⊙) host an AGN based on themid-IR excess, and about 40% of the mid-IR excess AGNs alsohost a radio AGN. A VLA imaging survey of a distance limited sample of IR luminousgalaxies has revealed the presence of 100 kpc scale giant radioplumes in 3 out of 9 cases (Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 6240). Theirlarge spatial extent, energetics, and presence of a powerful AGN in each case suggests that an AGN is the power source. Such plumesare not detected in other ultraluminous infrared galaxies which lack clear evidence for an AGN, such as Arp 220.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] On the release of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Faint Source Survey (FSS), we embarked on a redshift survey of a large sample (1,400) of galaxies identified with FSS sources brighter than 0.2 Jy at 60 |xm, covering an area of 700 square degrees1. We have obtained redshifts for 95% of the ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 278 (1979), S. 530-530 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We observed QOOOO-398 at 1,465.MHz with the partially completed VLA during 16-18 June 1978 as part of a larger programme to study radio emission from optically selected quasars. Nine scans of QOOOO-398 were made at uniform intervals within 2 h of transit. All 15 pairs of the six antennas were ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 283 (1980), S. 357-358 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Although quasars were originally discovered on the basis of strong radio emission, it now seems that most optically selected quasars are undetectable as radio sources1-4. In fact, most optically selected quasars show no clear evidence, at any frequency, for synchrotron radiation. For most quasars, ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Palo Alto, Calif. : Annual Reviews
    ISSN: 0066-4146
    Source: Annual Reviews Electronic Back Volume Collection 1932-2001ff
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-08-26
    Description: This is the second of two papers describing the observations and source catalogues derived from sensitive 3-GHz images of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We describe the reduction and cataloguing process, which yielded an image with 8 arcsec resolution and instrumental noise of n = 1.01 μJy beam –1 rms (before primary-beam corrections) and a catalogue of 558 sources detected above 5 n . We include details of how we estimate source spectral indices across the 2-GHz VLA bandwidth, finding a median index of –0.76 ± 0.04. Stacking of source spectra reveals a flattening of spectral index with decreasing flux density. We present a source count derived from the catalogue. We show a traditional count estimate compared with a completely independent estimate made via a P(D) confusion analysis, and find very good agreement. Cross-matches of the catalogue with X-ray, optical, infrared, radio, and redshift catalogues are also presented. The X-ray, optical and infrared data, as well as active galactic nuclei (AGN) selection criteria allow us to classify 10 per cent as radio-loud AGN, 28 per cent as radio-quiet AGN, and 58 per cent as star-forming galaxies, with only 4 per cent unclassified.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-07-15
    Description: This is the first of two papers describing the observations and cataloguing of deep 3-GHz observations of the Lockman Hole North using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through the use of simulated images, the uncertainties and accuracy of source-finding routines, as well as to quantify systematic effects due to resolution, such as source confusion and source size. While these effects are not new, this work is intended as a particular case study that can be scaled and translated to other surveys. We use the simulations to derive uncertainties in the fitted parameters, as well as bias corrections for the actual catalogue (presented in Paper II). We compare two different source-finding routines, OBIT and AEGEAN, and two different effective resolutions, 8 and 2.75  arcsec. We find that the two routines perform comparably well, with OBIT being slightly better at de-blending sources, but slightly worse at fitting resolved sources. We show that 30–70 per cent of sources are missed or fit inaccurately once the source size becomes larger than the beam, possibly explaining source count errors in high-resolution surveys. We also investigate the effect of blending, finding that any sources with separations smaller than the beam size are fit as single sources. We show that the use of machine-learning techniques can correctly identify blended sources up to 90 per cent of the time, and prior-driven fitting can lead to a 70 per cent improvement in the number of de-blended sources.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-06-18
    Description: The shape of the curves defined by the counts of radio sources per unit area as a function of their flux density was one of the earliest cosmological probes. Radio source counts continue to be an area of astrophysical interest as they can be used to study the relative populations of galaxy types in the Universe (as well as investigate any cosmological evolution in their respective luminosity functions). They are also a vital consideration for determining how source confusion may limit the depth of a radio interferometer observation, and are essential for characterizing the extragalactic foregrounds in cosmic microwave background experiments. There is currently no consensus as to the relative populations of the faintest (sub-mJy) source types, where the counts show a turn-up. Most of the source count data in this regime are gathered from multiple observations that each use a deep, single pointing with an interferometric radio telescope. These independent count measurements exhibit large amounts of scatter (factors of the order of a few) that significantly exceeds their respective stated uncertainties. In this paper, we use a simulation of the extragalactic radio continuum emission to assess the level at which sample variance may be the cause of the scatter. We find that the scatter induced by sample variance in the simulated counts decreases towards lower flux density bins as the raw source counts increase. The field-to-field variations make significant contributions to the scatter in the measurements of counts derived from deep observations that consist of a single pointing, and could even be the sole cause at 〉100 μJy. We present a method for evaluating the flux density limit that a radio survey must reach in order to reduce the count uncertainty induced by sample variance to a specific value. We also derive a method for correcting Poisson errors on source counts from existing and future deep radio surveys in order to include the uncertainties due to the cosmological clustering of sources. A conclusive empirical constraint on the effect of sample variance at these low luminosities is unlikely to arise until the completion of future large-scale radio surveys with next-generation radio telescopes.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-04-14
    Description: Radio source counts constrain galaxy populations and evolution, as well as the global star formation history. However, there is considerable disagreement among the published 1.4-GHz source counts below 100 μJy. Here, we present a statistical method for estimating the μJy and even sub-μJy source count using new deep wide-band 3-GHz data in the Lockman Hole from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. We analysed the confusion amplitude distribution P(D) , which provides a fresh approach in the form of a more robust model, with a comprehensive error analysis. We tested this method on a large-scale simulation, incorporating clustering and finite source sizes. We discuss in detail our statistical methods for fitting using Markov chain Monte Carlo, handling correlations, and systematic errors from the use of wide-band radio interferometric data. We demonstrated that the source count can be constrained down to 50 nJy, a factor of 20 below the rms confusion. We found the differential source count near 10 μJy to have a slope of –1.7, decreasing to about –1.4 at fainter flux densities. At 3 GHz, the rms confusion in an 8-arcsec full width at half-maximum beam is ~ 1.2 μJy beam –1 , and a radio background temperature ~14 mK. Our counts are broadly consistent with published evolutionary models. With these results, we were also able to constrain the peak of the Euclidean normalized differential source count of any possible new radio populations that would contribute to the cosmic radio background down to 50 nJy.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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