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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Full-scale, in-flight measurements of the boundary-layer thickness, velocity profile, and flow angle have been made at several sample collection stations on the fuselage of the NASA CV 990. These results are given as functions of Mach number, Reynolds number, yaw, and angle of attack.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0028
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.
    Keywords: AIR TRANSPORTATION AND SAFETY
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-0029
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Test flights to remotely measure nonurban carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations by gas filter correlation radiometry are discussed. The inferred CO concentrations obtained through use of the Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) agreed with independent measurements obtained by gas chromatography air sample bottle analysis to within 20 percent. The equipment flown on board the aircraft, the flight test procedure, the gas chromatograph direct air sampling procedure, and the GFCR data analysis procedure are reported.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA-CR-153931 , TR-PGSTR-AP77-57
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A system for measuring ambient clean air levels of the atmospheric trace gases methane and carbon monoxide is described. The analytical method consists of a gas chromatographic technique that incorporates sample preconcentration with catalytic conversion of CO to CH4 and subsequent flame ionization detection of these gases. The system has sufficient sensitivity and repeatability to make the precise measurements required to establish concentration profiles for CO and CH4 in the planetary boundary layer. A discussion of the bottle sampling program being conducted to obtain the samples for the concentration profiles is also presented.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: PGSTR-AP77-61 , NASA-CR-154984
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2006-04-12
    Description: Nineteen stratospheric samples from the eruption plumes of Mount St. Helens were collected in five flight experiments. The plume samples were collected at various altitudes from 13.1 to 20.7 km by using the Ames cryogenic sampling system on board the NASA U-2 aircraft. The enriched, cryogenically collected samples were analyzed by chromatography. The concentrations of aerosols precursor gases (OCS, SO2, and CS2), CH3Cl, N2O, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 were measured by gas chromatography. Large enhancement of the mixing ratio of SO2 and moderate enhancement of CS2 and OCS were found in the plume samples compared with similar measurement under pre-volcanic conditions. A fast decay rate of the SO2 mixing ratio in the plume was observed. Measurement of Cl(-), SO2(2-), and NO3(-) by ion chromatography was also carried out on water solutions prepared from the plume samples. The results obtained with this technique imply large mixing ratios of HCl, (NO + NO2 + HNO3), and SO2, in which these constituents are the respective sources of the anions. Measurement of the Rn222 concentration in the plume was made. Other stratospheric constituents in the plume samples, such as H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO, were also observed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Atmospheric Effects and Potential Climatic Impact of the 1980 Eruptions of Mt. St. Helens; p 47-54
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Two techniques designed for measurements of NO(x (NO + NO2) were intercompared during aircraft flights made in the spring of 1984 in the middle free troposphere over the eastern Pacific Ocean and southwestern U.S. One NO chemiluminescence instrument was equipped with a ferrous sulphate converter, another with a photolytic converter. The ferrous sulphate-equipped instrument was apparently much less specific for NO2. It registered levels about three times larger than the photolytic converter and gave NO2/NO ratios that were much larger than photochemical calculations would indicate as reasonable. Additionally, the results imply that active NO(x) was only 10-20 percent of the total odd nitrogen in the middle free troposphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 15803-15
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Measurements in the stratosphere of gaseous constituents in the plume of Mount St. Helens were obtained during five flights of the NASA U-2 aircraft between 19 May and 17 June 1980. Mixing ratios from gas chromatographic measurements on samples acquired about 24 hours after the initial eruption show considerable enhancement over nonvolcanic concentrations for sulfur dioxide (more than 1000 times), methyl chloride (about 10 times), and carbon disulfide (more than 3 times). The mixing ratio of carbonyl sulfide was comparable to nonvolcanic mixing ratios although 3 days later it was enhanced two to three times. Ion chromatography measurements on water-soluble constituents are also reported. Very large concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate ions were measured, implying large mixing ratios for the water-soluble gaseous constituents from which the anions are derived. Measurements of radon-222 present in the plume are also reported.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Science; 211; Feb. 20
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results are reported from airborne measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and CO obtained in the free troposphere (FT) and boundary layer (BL) over the western U.S. and eastern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation 2 (CITE 2) in summer 1986. The aircraft instrumentation and the CITE 2 flight protocols are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs. Over the ocean the median mixing ratios for NO and NO2 were found to be 4.0 and 10.4 parts per trillion by volume (pptv), respectively, in the BL and 12.4 and 18.0 pptv in the FT; the corresponding values over land were 34.5 and 75.0 pptv in the BL and 13.0 and 36.0 pptv in the FT. in continental air masses. NO(x) is shown to be positively correlated with O3 and CO and negatively correlated with dewpoint over the ocean, whereas over land NO(x) was positively correlated with O3, CO, and dewpoint.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 10205-10
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Results from an intercomparison of techniques to measure tropospheric levels of carbon monoxide (CO) are discussed. The intercomparison was conducted as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) and was held at Wallops Island, VA, in July 1983. Instruments intercompared included a laser differential absorption method and three grab sample/gas chromatograph methods. The intercomparison consisted of simultaneous measurements of ambient levels of CO and controlled injections of CO from a common manifold. Results from the techniques exhibited a high degree of correlation among themselves and with changes in the CO mixing ratio. The results suggested a level of agreement among the techniques of about 15 percent. However, a day-to-day bias between the techniques was observed, which resulted in differences between techniques as large as 38 percent.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 90; 12
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Samples of stratospheric trace gases were obtained on eight flights of NASA high-altitude aircraft from April 16 through December 13, 1982. The sampling occurred at altitudes from 15 to 22 km, latitudes from 23 to 52 deg N, and longitudes from 108 to 130 deg W. The cryogenically concentrated samples were analyzed by gas chromatography for SO2, a primary precursor of the gas-to-particle conversion process. The measured mixing ratio of SO2 varied between 8 and 132 pptv. Evidence from aerosol measurements indicates that a few of our early samples may have been collected in the fringes of the volcanic cloud from El Chichon. Samples obtained on some later flights may have been from the eruption cloud but were taken at times when most of the volcanically injected SO2 should have been converted to H2SO4.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 10; 1045-104
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