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  • 1
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-510X
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: This study used an environmentally controlled plant growth facility, EcoCELLs, to measure canopy gas exchanges directly and to examine the effects of elevated [CO2] on canopy radiation- and water-use efficiencies. Sunflowers (Helianthus annus var. Mammoth) were grown at ambient (399 μmol mol−1) and elevated [CO2] (746 μmol mol−1) for 53 days in EcoCELLs. Whole canopy carbon- and water-fluxes were measured continuously during the period of the experiment. The results indicated that elevated [CO2] enhanced daily total canopy carbon- and water-fluxes by 53% and 11%, respectively, on a ground-area basis, resulting in a 54% increase in radiation-use efficiency (RUE) based on intercepted photosynthetic active radiation and a 26% increase in water-use efficiency (WUE) by the end of the experiment. Canopy carbon- and water-fluxes at both CO2 treatments varied with canopy development. They were small at 22 days after planting (DAP) and gradually increased to the maxima at 46 DAP. When canopy carbon- and water-fluxes were expressed on a leaf-area basis, no effect of CO2 was found for canopy water-flux while elevated [CO2] still enhanced canopy carbon-flux by 29%, on average. Night-time canopy carbon-flux was 32% higher at elevated than at ambient [CO2]. In addition, RUE and WUE displayed strong diurnal variations, high at noon and low in the morning or afternoon for WUE but opposite for RUE. This study provided direct evidence that plant canopy may consume more, instead of less, water but utilize both water and radiation more efficiently at elevated than at ambient [CO2], at least during the exponential growth period as illustrated in this experiment.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Plant responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 have been characterized generally by stomatal closure and enhanced growth rates. These responses are being increasingly incorporated into global climate models that quantify interactions between the biosphere and atmosphere, altering climate predictions from simpler physically based models. However, current information on CO2 responses has been gathered primarily from studies of crop and temperate forest species. In order to apply responses of vegetation to global predictions, CO2 responses in other commonly occurring biomes must be studied. A Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) study is currently underway to examine plant responses to high CO2 in a natural, undisturbed Mojave Desert ecosystem in Nevada, USA. Here we present findings from this study, and its companion glasshouse experiment, demonstrating that field-grown Ephedra nevadensis and glasshouse-grown Larrea tridentata responded to high CO2 with reductions in the ratio of transpirational surface area to sapwood area (LSR) of 33% and 60%, respectively. Thus, leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity increased and stomatal conductance remained constant or was increased under elevated CO2. Field-grown Larrea did not show a reduced LSR under high CO2, and stomatal conductance was reduced in the high CO2 treatment, although the effect was apparent only under conditions of unusually high soil moisture. Both findings suggest that the common paradigm of 20–50% reductions in stomatal conductance under high CO2 may not be applicable to arid ecosystems under most conditions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide supply is predicted to alter plant growth and biomass allocation patterns. It is not clear whether changes in biomass allocation reflect optimal partitioning or whether they are a direct effect of increased growth rates. Plasticity in growth and biomass allocation patterns was investigated at two concentrations of CO2 ([CO2]) and at limiting and nonlimiting nutrient levels for four fast- growing old-field annual species. Abutilon theophrasti, Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, and Polygonum pensylvanicum were grown from seed in controlled growth chamber conditions at current (350 μmol mol−1, ambient) and future- predicted (700 μmol mol−1, elevated) CO2 levels. Frequent harvests were used to determine growth and biomass allocation responses of these plants throughout vegetative development. Under nonlimiting nutrient conditions, whole plant growth was increased greatly under elevated [CO2] for three C3 species and moderately increased for a C4 species (Amaranthus). No significant increases in whole plant growth were observed under limiting nutrient conditions. Plants grown in elevated [CO2] had lower or unchanged root:shoot ratios, contrary to what would be expected by optimal partitioning theory. These differences disappeared when allometric plots of the same data were analysed, indicating that CO2-induced differences in root:shoot allocation were a consequence of accelerated growth and development rates. Allocation to leaf area was unaffected by atmospheric [CO2] for these species. The general lack of biomass allocation responses to [CO2] availability is in stark contrast with known responses of these species to light and nutrient gradients. We conclude that biomass allocation responses to elevated atmospheric [CO2] are not consistent with optimal partitioning predictions.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Elevated levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to affect plant performance and may alter global temperature patterns. Changes in mean air temperatures that might be induced by rising levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases could also be accompanied by increased variability in daily temperatures such that acute increases in air temperature may be more likely than at present. Consequently, we investigated whether plants grown in a CO2 enriched atmosphere would be differently affected by a heat shock than plants grown at ambient CO2 levels. Plants of a C3 annual (Abutilon theophrasti), a C3 annual crop (Sinapis alba) and a C4 annual (Amaranthus retroflexus) were grown from seed in growth chambers under either 400 or 700cm3 m−3 CO2, and were fertilized with either a high or low nutrient regime. Young seedlings of S. alba, as well as plants of all species in either the vegetative or reproductive phase of growth were exposed to a 4-h heat shock in which the temperature was raised an additional 14–23°C (depending on plant age). Total biomass and reproductive biomass were examined to determine the effect of CO2, nutrient and heat shock treatments on plant performance. Heat shock, CO2, and nutrient treatments, all had some significant effects on plant performance, but plants from both CO2 treatments responded similarly to heat shocks. We also found, as expected, that plants grown under high CO2 had dramatically decreased tissue N concentrations relative to plants grown under ambient conditions. We predicted that high-CO2-grown plants would be more susceptible to a heat shock than ambient-CO2-grown plants, because the reduced N concentrations of high-CO2 grown plants could result in the reduced synthesis of heat shock proteins and reduced thermotolerance. Although we did not examine heat shock proteins, our results showed little relationship between plant nitrogen status and the ability of a plant to tolerate an acute increase in temperature.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The photosynthetic response of Larrea tridentata Cav., an evergreen Mojave Desert shrub, to elevated atmospheric CO2 and drought was examined to assist in the understanding of how plants from water-limited ecosystems will respond to rising CO2. We hypothesized that photosynthetic down-regulation would disappear during periods of water limitation, and would, therefore, likely be a seasonally transient event. To test this we measured photosynthetic, water relations and fluorescence responses during periods of increased and decreased water availability in two different treatment implementations: (1) from seedlings exposed to 360, 550, and 700 μmol mol–1 CO2 in a glasshouse; and (2) from intact adults exposed to 360 and 550 μmol mol–1 CO2 at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) Facility. FACE and glasshouse well-watered Larrea significantly down-regulated photosynthesis at elevated CO2, reducing maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), carboxylation efficiency (CE), and Rubisco catalytic sites, whereas droughted Larrea showed a differing response depending on treatment technique. Amax and CE were lower in droughted Larrea compared with well-watered plants, and CO2 had no effect on these reduced photosynthetic parameters. However, Rubisco catalytic sites decreased in droughted Larrea at elevated CO2. Operating Ci increased at elevated CO2 in droughted plants, resulting in greater photosynthetic rates at elevated CO2 as compared with ambient CO2. In well-watered plants, the changes in operating Ci, CE and Amax resulted in similar photosynthetic rates across CO2 treatments. Our results suggest that drought can diminish photosynthetic down-regulation to elevated CO2 in Larrea, resulting in seasonally transient patterns of enhanced carbon gain. These results suggest that water status may ultimately control the photosynthetic response of desert systems to rising CO2.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Allometry ; C/N Balance ; Global change ; Nitrogen-use efficiency ; Physiological adjustments
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Plants often respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 levels with reduced tissue nitrogen concentrations relative to ambient CO2-grown plants when comparisons are made at a common time. Another common response to enriched CO2 atmospheres is an acceleration in plant growth rates. Because plant nitrogen concentrations are often highest in seedlings and subsequently decrease during growth, comparisons between ambient and elevated CO2-grown plants made at a common time may not demonstrate CO2-induced reductions in plant nitrogen concentration per se. Rather, this comparison may be highlighting differences in nitrogen concentration between bigger, more developed plants and smaller, less developed plants. In this study, we directly examined whether elevated CO2 environments reduce plant nitrogen concentrations independent of changes in plant growth rates. We grew two annual plant species. Abutilon theophrasti (C3 photosynthetic pathway) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C4 photosynthetic pathway), from seed in glass-sided growth chambers with atmospheric CO2 levels of 350 μmol·mol−1 or 700 μmol·mol−1 and with high or low fertilizer applications. Individual plants were harvested every 2 days starting 3 days after germination to determine plant biomass and nitrogen concentration. We found: 1. High CO2-grown plants had reduced nitrogen concentrations and increased biomass relative to ambient CO2-grown plants when compared at a common time; 2. Tissue nitrogen concentrations did not vary as a function of CO2 level when plants were compared at a common size; and 3. The rate of biomass accumulation per rate of increase in plant nitrogen was unaffected by CO2 availability, but was altered by nutrient availability. These results indicate that a CO2-induced reduction in plant nitrogen concentration may not be due to physiological changes in plant nitrogen use efficiency, but is probably a size-dependent phenomenon resulting from accelerated plant growth.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The separation of 4.5 g. of americium from approximately a kilogram of light rare earths (primarily lanthanum) was achieved on a pilot plant scale by chromatographic displacement of the mixture from Dowex-50 resin with 0.1% ammonium citrate at pH 8 into hydrogen-form Dowex-50. The americium collected into a narrow band and was eluted free from lanthanum but contained an equal weight of cerium. A 6- and a 2-in.-diam. column were used in tandem. Use of a final column with a much smaller diameter would have permitted a cleaner separation from cerium, but this was left for a laboratory-scale separation by a different process. Precipitation, which was observed in the columns during the first runs, was later avoided entriely by use of high flow rates both initially and during the transfer between columns. No adverse effects were noted from ∼15 curies of alpha activity.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-7101
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
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