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  • 1
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A neutron diffraction study of the non-linear optical (NLO) material 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline (NMBA) is presented. NMBA exhibits a large macroscopic second-order NLO susceptibility, χ(2), and this study shows that hydrogen bonding is, in part, responsible for this. No hydrogen bonding was reported in the X-ray study [Ponomarev et al. (1977). Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 22, 223–225], whereas the present work shows that C—H...X hydrogen bonds (where X = N, O or π) direct the nature of the three-dimensional lattice. C—H...X (X = N or O) hydrogen bonds are common; however, C—H...π hydrogen-bond motifs are relatively rare. Such intermolecular interactions help extend the molecular charge transfer into the supramolecular realm, the charge transfer originating as a consequence of the high level of molecular planarity and strong donor-to-acceptor interactions. Molecular planarity, coupled with the favourable nature of the hydrogen bonds, results in parallel stacking of molecules in both the a and c crystallographic directions with extremely close interplanar spacings. Such a combination of influential hydrogen-bonding characteristics accounts, in part, for the large second-order NLO output of the material since the phenomenon is so critically dependent upon the nature of the charge transfer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1600-5740
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A single-crystal neutron diffraction study of the organic non-linear optical material 3-(1,1-dicyanoethenyl)-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole (hereafter DCNP), space group Cc, is presented. The study was conducted in order to relate the structural characteristics of the compound to its physical properties. DCNP exhibits a very large second harmonic generation (SHG) output, an extremely large linear electro-optical effect and photoconductive and pyroelectric properties. The nature of the hydrogen-bonding revealed by the study, in part, accounts for the first two of these phenomena. The neutron study also shows that some rather atypical atomic thermal motion is present in part of the molecule. With the aid of a variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction study, in conjunction with the neutron study, this thermal motion is attributed to libration and is fully characterized. As a result, suitable corrections to the bond geometry and the anisotropic displacement parameters of DCNP are made. The libration is also shown to enhance the SHG effect. The cell parameters from the variable-temperature X-ray study are also used in order to evaluate the thermal expansivity coefficients of DCNP.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-5724
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: The successful application of the newly developed image-plate neutron Laue diffractometer (LADI) at the Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France, for rapid hydrogen-bonding characterization is reported. The case study concerns the promising non-linear optical material zinc (tris)thiourea sulfate (ZTS), which contains 30 atoms in the asymmetric unit and crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group, Pca21, a = 11.0616 (9), b = 7.7264 (6), c = 15.558 (1) Å [T = 100.0 (1) K]. The results from a 12 h data collection from ZTS on LADI are compared with those obtained over 135 h using the monochromatic four-circle diffractometer D9 at the same reactor source with a crystal 13 times larger in volume. Both studies reveal the extensive hydrogen bonding and other close non-bonded contacts within the material. As expected, the results from D9 are more precise than those obtained from LADI; however, the bond geometry determined from the two experiments is the same within the larger estimated standard deviations. Furthermore, the conclusions drawn from the two studies separately regarding the nature of all supramolecular features are identical. This illustrates that LADI is eminently suitable for rapid characterization of hydrogen-bonded structures by neutron diffraction, with the gain in speed compared with traditional instrumentation being several orders of magnitude.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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