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  • 1
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    Print: 17.1957 – 350.1975 (Location: A43, Archiv 16)
    Corporation: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 〈Hanover, NH〉
    Print ISSN: 0501-5812
    Topics: Geosciences
    Acronym: CRREL RR
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-201-76/5
    In: CRREL Report, 76-5
    Description / Table of Contents: Griffith, and later Babel, have previously developed a tensile fracture criterion for a two-dimensional state of stress. This theory is extended to the compression-compression region. From this theory the angle of fracture is developed. The theory is extended conceptually to three dimensions. Triaxial test data by Haynes for snow-ice are shown in this three-dimensional fracture theory. The test data are slightly less than those predicted when the void in the snow-ice is spherical.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 9 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 76-5
    Language: English
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
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    Hanover, NH ; Nachgewiesen 93.1964; 94.1962 -
    Call number: ZSP-202
    ISSN: 0501-5812
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/43
    In: CRREL Report, 82-43
    Description / Table of Contents: The radar signatures of ice wedges and wedge-like structures have been investigated for a variety of soil conditions. The radar used for this study emitted short sinusoidal pulses of about 10-ns duration with an approximate center frequency of 150 MHz. Most of the ice wedges existed at depths of about 1 m in a variety of silty and sandy soils with both frozen and thawed active layers. The position of the wedges was usually identified from corresponding surface features. An artificial ice wedge in coarse-grained alluvium was also profiled as well as wedge-like structures of fine silt in a coarse-grained glacial outwash. All wedges and wedge-like structures produced a hyperbolic reflection profile except when an active layer of thawed, saturated silt was present which eliminated returns from the wedges. The peaks of the hyper-bolas were sometimes masked by reflections from the permafrost table or other material interfaces, and multiple hyperbolas occurred at some sites. The dielectric constant of the host medium was often calculated from the linear portions of the hyperbolas and the results were verified by laboratory time domain reflectometry measurements per-formed on field samples. In some cases, hyperbolic profiles originated at several meters depth suggesting that deep ice wedges could be detected in areas of cold permafrost.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-43
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background Objectives and procedures Equipment used Radar TDR Definitions Massive ice Results Artificial wedge: Norwich, Vermont Ice wedges in sand: Fish Creek, Alaska Ice wedges: Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Ice wedges under thawed fine-grained soils: North Slope, Alaska Wedge-like soil structures: Ft. Greely, Alaska TDR measurements Summary and concluding remarks Literature cited Appendix A: Brief discussion of dispersion
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 5
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/42
    In: CRREL Report, 82-42
    Description / Table of Contents: A high-resolution impulse radar profiling system was evaluated for 1) detecting the existence of sea ice which coring has revealed to exist on the bottom of the Ross Ice Shelf at Site J-9, 2) detecting the preferred horizontal c-axis azi-muthal direction of the sea ice crystals, using the voltage amplitude of the radar reflection from the sea ice bottom, and 3) determining the direction of the currents under an Antarctic ice shelf. A field program was conducted consisting of a surface radar survey on the Ross Ice Shelf at Site J-9 and surface and airborne radar profiling on the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The CRREL impulse radar system, operating at a center frequency of either 80 MHz or 20 MHz, was unable to detect the shelf bottom at Site J-9, which drilling revealed to be 416 m below the snow surface. The radar system was used to profile the McMurdo Ice Shelf both from the snow surface and from the air; a shelf thickness of about 275 m was easily detected. Theoretical considerations indicate that the bulk conductivity of the ice shelf at Site J1-9 was higher than originally anticipated, and this limited the radar sounding depth to about 405 m when operating at a frequency of 20 MHz.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 19 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-42
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Introduction Profiling system Theoretical considerations Field program Discussion Literature cited
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    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 6
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/41
    In: CRREL Report, 82-41
    Description / Table of Contents: Many of the important factors influencing the choice of appropriate aquifer test procedures are presented. The concepts of bias, accuracy and spatial variabil­ity are explained. The definitions of a number of aquifer parameters are devel­oped from basic principles demonstrating the underlying assumptions and limita­tions. The parameters considered are: piezometric head, hydraulic conductiv­ity/intrinsic permeability, flow direction, specific discharge magnitude, transmissivity, volumetric flow rate, total porosity, effective porosity, aver­age linear velocity, storage coefficient, specific yield, dispersion coefficient-aquifer dispersivity. For each parameter several techniques are described, evaluated and ranked in terms of perceived potential accuracy, simplicity and value to contaminant transport studies. It must be stressed, however, that the evaluations are based principally upon theoretical grounds, and not upon actual conduct of the described procedures.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 111 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-41
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstrac Preface Introduction Purpose Scope Concept of accuracy Test selection Definition of parameters Piezometric head Use of piezometers Hydraulic conductivity Flow direction Specific discharge magnitude Transmissivity Volumetric flow rate Porosity Average linear velocity Storage coefficient-specific yield Aquifer dispersivity Parameter estimation techniques Piezometric head Hydraulic conductivity Direction and magnitude of specific discharge vector Transmissivity Volumetric flow rate Total porosity Average linear velocity Storage coefficient Specific yield Effective porosity Aquifer dispersivity-dispersion coefficients Conclusions Literature cited
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 7
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/40
    In: CRREL Report, 82-40
    Description / Table of Contents: The use of explosives to break floating ice sheets is described, and test data are used to develop design curves that predict explosives effects as ice thickness, charge size, and charge depth vary. Application of the curves to practical problems is illustrated by numerical examples. The general features of underwater explosions are reviewed and related to ice blasting. Quasi-static plate theory is considered, and is judged to be inapplicable to explosive cratering of ice plates. The specific energy for optimized ice blasting is found to compare quite favorably with the specific energy of icebreaking ships. All available field data for ice blasting are tabulated in appendices, together with details of the re­gression analyses from which the design curves are generated.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 68 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-40
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction General behavior of underwater explosions Regression analysis for ice-blasting data General features of the regression curves Use of the regression curves as design curves for ice blasting Row charges and pattern charges Response of floating ice sheets to underwater explosions Specific energy and “powder factor” Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Basic data on ice blasting Appendix B: Scaled input data Appendix C: Initial regression analysis using complete polynomial Appendix D: Regression analysis with two coefficients of the original poly­nomial deleted
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  • 8
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/39
    In: CRREL Report, 82-39
    Description / Table of Contents: Observations of a 4.4-m-high brine step in the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, show that it has migrated about 1.2 km in 4 years. The present brine wave is overriding an older brine-soaked layer. This migration is proof of the dynamic nature of the step, which is the leading edge of a brine wave that originated at the shelf edge after a major break-out of the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The inland boundary of brine penetration is characterized by a series of descending steps that are believed to represent terminal positions of separate intrusions of brine of similar origin. The inland boundary of brine percolation is probably controlled largely by the depth at which brine encounters the firn/ ice transition (43 m). However, this boundary is not fixed by permeability considerations alone, since measurable movement of brine is still occurring at the inland boundary. Freeze-fractionation of the seawater as it migrates throught the ice shelf preferentially precipitates virtually all sodium sulfate, and concomitant removal of water by freezing in the pore spaces of the infiltrated firm produces residual brines approximately six times more concentrated than the original seawater.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 35 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-39
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Objectives Analytical techniques Radio echo profiling Core drilling Results and discussion Brine infiltration survey Brine layer steps Brine infiltration characteristics Brine infiltration mechanisms at inland boundary Confirmation of brine depths by drilling Density and temperature profiles Ice shelf freeboard Brine upwelling Brine chemistry Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 9
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/38
    In: CRREL Report, 82-38
    Description / Table of Contents: Extreme cold causes heavy buildup of frost, ice and condensation on many windows. It also increases the incentive for improving the airtightness of windows against heat loss. Our study shows that tightening specifications for Alaskan windows to permit only 30% of the air leakage allowed by current American airtightness standards is economically attractive. We also recommend triple glazing in much of Alaska to avoid window icing in homes and barracks. We base our conclusions on a two-year field study of Alaskan military bases that included recording humidity and temperature data, observing moisture accumulation on windows and measuring airtightness with a fan pressurization device.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-38
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Nomenclature Introduction Previous work in cold weather window performance Investigation Data acquisition and analysis Modeling the window thermal regime Moisture and ice observations Airtightness testing and analysis Annual heat loss from air leakage Results and conclusions Moisture on windows Airtightness Airtightness economics Recommendations for windows in extreme cold Airtightness Multiple glazing Literature cited Appendix A: Moisture levels and airtightness Appendix B: Dewpoint data Appendix C: Sample observations of icing
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 10
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/36
    In: CRREL Report, 82-36
    Description / Table of Contents: Camp construction and drilling activities in 1950 at the East Oumalik drill site in northern Alaska caused extensive degradation of ice-rich, perennially frozen silt and irreversible modification of the upland terrain. In a study of the long-term degradational effects at this site, the near-surface geology was defined by drilling and coring 76 holes (maximum depth of 34 m) in disturbed and undisturbed areas and by laboratory analyses of these cores. Terrain disturbances, including bulldozed roads and excavations, camp structures and off-road vehicle trails, were found to have severely disrupted the site's thermal regime. This led to a thickening of the active layer, melting of the ground ice, thaw subsidence and thaw consolidation of the sediments. Slumps, sediment gravity flows and collapse of materials on slopes bounding thaw depressions expanded the degradation laterally, with thermal and hydraulic erosion removing materials as the depressions widened and deepened with time. Degradational processes became less active after thawed sediments thickened sufficiently to slow the increase in the depth of thaw and permit slope stabilization. The site's terrain is now irregular and hummocky with numerous depressions. Seasonal thaw depths are deeper in disturbed areas than in undisturbed areas and reflect the new moisture conditions and morphology. The severity of disturbance is much greater at East Oumalik than at another old drill site, Fish Creek. The difference results primarily from differences in the physical properties of the sediments, including the quantity and distribution of ground ice.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 42 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-36
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Methodology Geologic setting Camp construction and occupation Types of disturbance Degradational processes and the effective area of impact Areal effects of disturbance Topography Groundwater, surface water and drainage Sediment properties and near-surface stratigraphy Surficial processes Depth of thaw Comparison to Fish Creek Discussion and conclusions Literature cited
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