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  • 1
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS. A description is given of the formation of an unusual type of achromatic figure by two very long, narrow centrioles. The unique manner in which this structure functions in chromosomal movement is explained.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SYNOPSIS. The role of eleven different types of achromatic figures in chromosomal movement of Barbulanympha is analyzed. When only one pole is present, no chromosomes are ever connected with it, and hence they do not move. The chromosomes go through their usual life cycle including pairing, but remain in the parent nucleus, which, of course, does not divide. When two poles are present with only one pole near the nucleus, the poles, which are the distal ends of the elongate centrioles, do not cooperate in the formation of a central spindle and the chromosomal behavior is just as if there were only one pole—no movement. The same is true when more than two poles are present with only one near the nucleus.Unless a central spindle is present, movement of chromosomes never occurs. However, when many central spindles are present, sister chromosomes may separate and move to poles which are not directly connected by a central spindle. In other words, sisters may separate without moving along a central spindle.In binucleate cells with one central spindle the chromosomes of one nucleus move to the poles, but those of the other do not. Movement always occurs in the nucleus that has its nuclear membrane depressed by the central spindle. When two or more central spindles are present, the chromosomes of both nuclei may move to the poles.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY. Two centrioles, an old one and a new one, are always present in the resting cell. From prophase onward two new ones and two old ones are present. Beginning with the resting stage, five types of centriole life cycles are described and compared with one another: In type 1, both centrioles are elongate; in type 2, the old one is long and the new one, which is short, elongates in prophase; in type 3, both are short, both elongate in prophase, and both, except for their anterior tips, degenerate in late telophase; in type 4, both are long but in prophase their distal ends become free of the rest of the centrioles, these ends migrate to center or posterior end of cell, where, after they produce the achromatic figure and it completes its function in nuclear division, they degenerate; in type 5, both are short and neither elongates at any stage of its life cycle.New centrioles are produced by the anterior ends of old ones. In their first generation, centrioles produce only extranuclear organelles (flagella, parabasals, axostyles, etc.); in their second and later generations, they produce only the achromatic figure (gametogenesis in Trichonympha and reorganization in Barbulanympha and Rhynchonympha are exceptions to this rule).The distal ends of centrioles in some types of cycles are surrounded by centrosomes; in others they are not. In one type of centriole life cycle a small central spindle is present in the resting cell in two genera; in the other types this is not the case.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY. The role of centrioles in achromatic figure production is considered when the number present varies from 1–8. Each centriole after it becomes elongate produces astral rays from its distal end. Some of these rays remain free; some, by joining centromeres, become chromosomal fibers; and some, by joining and growing along those produced by one or more other centrioles, produce the central spindle portion of the achromatic figures. Thus, one centriole may function cooperatively with one to several others in the production of central spindles. But at least two centrioles must be present, and in the proper spacial relation to each other, to form a central spindle; one by itself can form only free astral rays, no central spindle or chromosomal fibers.The flagellated areas (to which the centrioles are anchored anteriorly) play an important role in determining the position of the distal ends of the centrioles with respect to one another, and the position of these ends, in turn, in a large measure, determines the types of achromatic figures produced, particularly the number of central spindles.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY. Some of the unusual types of sexual behavior in Trichonympha are considered: cytoplasmic incompatibility of gametes as shown in the fertilization process, pronuclear incompatibility, independence of pronuclear and cytoplasmic incompatibilities, loss of extranuclear organelles of male gamete, the formation of gametes with no chromosomes, those with the diploid number, and those with numbers between these extremes.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY. The various sexual processes in each of ten genera of protozoa of Cryptocercus have been correlated with the molting period of their host in days beginning with 50 days before ecdysis and ending 3 days after ecdysis. Some genera begin the gametogenesis portion of their sexual cycle much earlier in the molting period than others. Gametogenesis in some genera is haploid, in others it is diploid; in some it is a short process, requiring only a few hours for completion; in others it requires several days for completion. Not counting Leptospironympka and Macrospironympha, meiosis occurs after ecdysis in 6 genera and before in two. The fertilization process in some genera is too involved to make possible a simple summary. The time when gametogenesis, fertilization, and meiosis occur in the molting period of the host seems to be determined by the nature of the various genera of protozoan parasites themselves rather than by their host, although the host, in each case, is always responsible for the initiation of the sexual process as well as for carrying it to completion.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The centrioles of Trichonympha from termites do not differ, either in structure or function, from those of Trichonympha in Crypiocercus. The previous claims of a difference are erroneous. The roles of the centrioles in the reproduction of new extranuclear organelles and in nuclear duplication are described. The centrioles are autonomous organdies. They are just as essential for a cell's existence as are chromosomes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: When exogenous ecdysone is injected into a host (adult or intermolt nymph) which has no ecdysone of its own, gametogenesis is induced in the protozoa of such a host, although the host itself never undergoes ecdysis. The time required to induce this sexual process varies in different genera and with the dosage of hormone administered; but it is never possible, regardless of the amount of hormone given, to induce gametogenesis in all the genera at the same time; some still begin a day or two later than others, but never 40-45 days later as occurs in untreated roaches.Likewise, when exogenous ecdysone is administered to a nymphal host in the molting period, the sexual cycles of its protozoa are greatly accelerated, and the host undergoes ecdy-sis much sooner than would otherwise have been the case. Both sexuality in the protozoa and the molting process in the host are accelerated. Only when large doses of ecdysone are administered are the sexual cycles of the protozoa modified in any way except a decided acceleration. Quite large amounts of ecdysone present special problems for the protozoa, problems they never encounter in nature. The growth and differentiation hormone ecdysone causes the protozoa to grow and differentiate so rapidly that many of them cannot keep pace; as a result, degeneration begins, and death follows. But this over-acceleration effect of ecdysone and death of the protozoa occurs only in those genera which have not undergone gametogenesis when the large amount of hormone is administered; those which have completed gametogenesis are not affected at all. The results of acceleration have been observed in most genera, but have been studied more intensively in Tricho-nympha, where they are usually seen to be considerably more pronounced on the nuclei and chromosomes than on the cytoplasm. As a result, this genus, which invariably in nature undergoes only fertilization, is sometimes made to undergo either autogamy or endomitosis. The pronuclei, for example, differentiate and are ready to (and do) fuse before the cytoplasm of the gametocyte divides to form gametes. In the case of endomitosis, precocious differentiation of chromosomes seems to produce, or at least goes along with, premature degeneration of one centriole, the one that would ordinarily degenerate following fusion of gametes. Thus, nuclear division is made impossible.In some genera of the protozoa, the ecdysone titer must drop greatly before meiosis can begin. If the titer, after ecdysis. when it normally drops precipitously, is kept high with injections, meiosis does not begin; it is retarded for as long as the ecdysone titer is kept high.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The following types of transfauntions were made: from nymphs is an early stage of their molting period to nymphs 1-50 days before ecdysis and vice versa; from recently molted nymphs to nymphs in all stages of the molting period and vicve versa. In such transfaunated half or more of the protozoa in a donor host were transferred to a recipient host. The recipient hosts wee defaunated with oxygen by subjecting them to 60 psi for 2 hours, twice the minimum time necessary to kill all their protozoa. Transfaunations were made 24 hours after defaunation.The sexual cycles, as a result of these transfaunation experiments, in addition to being prevented altogether in several genera, were modified principally in two ways: they were shortened to less than half the time required under natural conditions; they were lengthened, in some genera, from two days to over two months. Whether shorteing or lengthening occurs depends on the type of host used in the experiment. And the factor in the host that is responsible for the modifications is the ecdysone titer; transfaunation from a lower to higher to a lower titer, in general, serves to lengthen it.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1550-7408
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: SUMMARY. Oxygen concentrations of 70–80 per cent of an atmosphere destroy all chromosomes of the flagellate Trichonympha provided the oxygen treatment is carried out during the early stages of gametogenesis at which time the chromosomes are in the process of duplicating themselves. This treatment does no damage to the cytoplasm and its organelles. Following the loss of chromosomes, the centrioles function in the production of the achromatic figure, the flagella, and‘parabasal bodies. Then the cytoplasm divides, thus producing two anucleate gametes which make some progress in the cytoplasmic differentiations characteristic of normal male and female gametes of Trichonympha.It is also possible, with somewhat higher concentrations of oxygen, with temperatures slightly above the freezing point and a longer period of treatment, to destroy the chromosomes of resting asexual nuclei in several genera of the flagellates that live in the roach Cryptocercus. So far as one can determine by observing organisms so treated, their cytoplasm and organelles are not injured.
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