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  • 1
    Call number: M 92.0834 ; M 91.0343 ; AWI G6-92-0159 ; M 92.0293 ; M 92.0540
    Description / Table of Contents: The spectrum of physical and chemical dating methods now covers the entire range of earth history. But there are so many methods that it is becoming increasingly difficult to select those that are appropriate for solving a specific problem. The objective of this book is to cover the whole spectrum of methods and to give examples of their applications. Thus it is addressed to everybody interested in the application of physical and chemical dating methods to the geosciences and archeology. It is especially valuable as a concise, but comprehensive reference for students and practitioners.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XI, 503 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 3540512764
    Classification: A.3.9.
    Classification: A.3.9.
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: 1 Introduction. - 2 Time Scales and Ages. - 2.1 Absolute Time Scales. - 2.2 Relative Time Scales. - 2.3 Physical and Chemical Time Scales. - 3 Selection, Collection, Packing, Storage, Transport,and Description of the Samples. - 3.1 Selection and Collection of the Samples. - 3.2 Packing, Storage, and Transport of the Samples. - 3.3 Sample Description. - 4 Treatment and Interpretation of the Raw Data. - 4.1 Suitability of a Sample for Dating and Reliabilityof the Dates. - 4.1.1 Soft-Rock Dating. - 4.1.2 Hard-Rock Dating. - 4.1.3 Isotope Geochemistry. - 4.2 Mathematical Evaluation of Physical and Chemical Age Data. - 4.2.1 Rules for Simple Calculations with the Dating Results; Statistical Tests. - 4.2.2 Comparison of Age Values. - 4.2.3 Numerical and Graphical Evaluation of Age Values. - 4.3 Publication of the Age Values. - 5 Physical Dating Methods. - 5.1 Principles. - 5.2 Sample Treatment and Measurement Techniques. - 5.2.1 Sample Treatment. - 5.2.1.1 Hard-Rock Samples. - 5.2.1.2 Soft-Rock Samples. - 5.2.2 Radioactivity Measurements: Decay Counting Methods. - 5.2.2.1 Gas-Filled Proportional and Geiger-Müller Counters. - 5.2.2.2 Scintillation Counters. - 5.2.2.3 Semiconductor Detectors. - 5.2.3 Measurement of Stable and Long-Lived Isotopes: Atom Counting Methods. - 5.2.3.1 Mass Spectrometry (MS). - 5.2.3.2 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). - 5.2.3.3 Resonance-Ionization Spectrometry (RIS). - 5.2.4 Other Analytical Techniques. - 5.2.4.1 Isotope Dilution Analysis (ID). - 5.2.4.2 Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). - 5.2.4.3 Flame Photometry, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AA) and Inductive Coupled Plasma Analysis (ICP). - 5.2.4.4 Ion-Microprobe (IMP) and Laser Microprobe Mass Analysis (LAMMA). - 5.2.4.5 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF) . - 6 Radiometric Dating Methods. - 6.1 Parent/Daughter Isotope Ratios as a Geochronometer. - 6.1.1 Potassium/Argon (40K/40Ar) Method. - 6.1.1.1 Conventional Potassium/Argon (40K/40Ar) Method. - 6.1.1.2 Argon/Argon (39Ar/40Ar) Method. - 6.1.2 Potassium/Calcium (40K/40Ca) Method. - 6.1.3 Rubidium/Strontium (87Rb/87Sr) Method. - 6.1.4 Lanthanum/Cerium (138La/138Ce) Method. - 6.1.5 Lanthanum/Barium (138La/138Ba) Method. - 6.1.6 Samarium/Neodymium (147Sm/143Nd) Method. - 6.1.7 Lutetium/Hafnium (176Lu/176Hf) Method. - 6.1.8 Rhenium/Osmium (187Re/187Os) Method. - 6.1.9 Uranium/Thorium/Lead Methods (238U/206Pb, 235U/207Pb and 232Th/208Pb Methods). - 6.1.10 Common Lead Method. - 6.1.11 Lead/Lead (207Pb/206Pb) Method. - 6.1.12 Chemical Lead Method. - 6.1.13 Lead/Alpha Method (Larsen Method). - 6.1.14 Krypton/Krypton (Krsf/Krn) Method. - 6.1.15 Xenon Methods. - 6.1.15.1 Uranium/Xenon (U/Xesf) Method. - 6.1.15.2 Xenon/Xenon (Xesf/Xen) Method. - 6.2 Dating with Cosmogenic Radionuclides. - 6.2.1 Radiocarbon (14C) Method. - 6.2.2 Tritium (3H) Methods. - 6.2.2.1 Classical Tritium (3H) Method. - 6.2.2.2 Tritium/Helium-3 (3H/3He) and Helium-3 (3He)Methods. - 6.2.3 Beryllium-10 (10Be) Method. - 6.2.4 Sodium-22 (22Na) Method. - 6.2.5 Aluminium-26 (26Al) Method. - 6.2.6 Silicon-32 (32Si) Method. - 6.2.7 Chlorine-36 (36Cl) Method. - 6.2.8 Argon-39 (39Ar) Method. - 6.2.9 Calcium-41 (41Ca) Method. - 6.2.10 Manganese-53 (53Mn) Method. - 6.2.11 Krypton-81 (81Kr) Method. - 6.2.12 Iodine-129 (129I) Method. - 6.2.13 Aluminium-26/Beryllium-10 (26Al/10Be) Method. - 6.2.14 Beryllium-10/Chlorine-36 (10Be/36Cl) Method. - 6.3 Dating Based on Radioactive Disequilibrium of the Uranium, Thorium, and Protactinium Decay Series: The Uranium/Thorium/Protactinium Methods. - 6.3.1 230Th/234U Method. - 6.3.2 231Pa/235U Method. - 6.3.3 231Pa/230Th Method. - 6.3.4 234U/238U Method. - 6.3.5 230Th-excess Method. - 6.3.6 231Pa-excess Method. - 6.3.7 230Th-excess/232Th or 230Th/238U Method. - 6.3.8 231Pa-excess/23Th-excess Method. - 6.3.9 234Th-excess Method. - 6.3.10 228Th-excess/232Th Method. - 6.3.11 Dating Methods Based on Supported 226Ra and Unsupported 226Ra. - 6.3.12 224Ra and 228Ra Methods. - 6.3.13 210Pb Method. - 6.3.14 Uranium/Helium (U/He) Method. - 6.3.15 Radium/Radon Method. - 6.4 Age Determination Using Radiation Damage. - 6.4.1 Thermoluminescence (TL) Method. - 6.4.2 Optical Dating (OSL) Method. - 6.4.3 Electron Spin Resonance (ESR or EPR) Method. - 6.4.4 Exo-Electron Method (TSEE Method). - 6.4.5 Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) Method. - 6.4.6 Differential Thermoanalysis (DTA). - 6.4.7 Fission Track Method (FT Method). - 6.4.8 Alpha-Recoil Track Method. - 6.4.9 Age Determination Using Pleochroic Haloes. - 6.5 Dating Meteorites and Lunar Rocks. - 6.5.1 Introduction. - 6.5.2 Sample Preparation and Measurement. - 6.5.3 Formation Interval. - 6.5.4 Solidification Ages. - 6.5.5 Gas Retention Ages. - 6.5.6 Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages. - 6.5.7 Terrestrial Ages of Meteorites. - 7 Chronostratigraphic Methods Using Global Time Markers. - 7.1 Paleomagnetic Dating Methods. - 7.2 Chronostratigraphic Time-Scale Using [Delta] 18O Values. - 7.3 Chronostratigraphic Time-Scale Using [Delta] 34S and [Delta] 13C Values and 87Sr/86Sr Ratios. - 7.4 Artificial Radionuclides as Time Markers. - 7.5 Geochemical Time Markers. - 7.6 Chemical Pollution as Time Markers. - 8 Chemical Dating Methods. - 8.1 Amino-Acid Racemization Method (AAR). - 8.2 Amino-Acid Degradation Method. - 8.3 Dating of Bones Using the Nitrogen or Collagen Content. - 8.4 Chemical Electron-Spin-Resonance (ESR) Dating. - 8.5 Molecular (Protein and DNA) Clocks. - 8.6 Obsidian Hydration Method. - 8.7 Dating of Man-Made Glass. - 8.8 Calcium Diffusion and Cation-Ratio Methods. - 8.9 Dating of Bones Using the Fluorine or Uranium Content. - 9 Phanerozoic Time-Scale. - 9.1 Objectives and History of Geochronolgy. - 9.2 Geological Time-Scales. - 9.3 The Future. - 10 Literature. - 10.1 Journals that Frequently Publish Geochronological Papers. - 10.2 Geochronology Textbooks. - 10.3 References. - Acknowledgments. - Appendix A: Geochronology Glossary. - Appendix B: Radioactive and Stable Isotopes in Geochronology. - Appendix C: List of Addresses. - Subject Index. - Foldout Table: Dating Methods, Ranges, and Materials.
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Location: Upper compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: AWI Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Environmental science & technology 9 (1975), S. 1006-1006 
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0921-4526
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0921-4526
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0921-4526
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: salbutamol ; asthma ; controlled-release formulation ; pharmacokinetics
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fifteen patients with asthma were given salbutamol controlled-release (SCR) 4 mg or 8 mg twice daily for seven days, in a randomised double-blind cross-over design. Plasma salbutamol levels were measured after the first and fifteenth doses for a 12 h period following drug ingestion. At steady-state the geometric mean values for Cmax were 8.2 ng/ml for 4 mg, and 16.1 ng/ml for 8 mg. Median tmax values were 300 and 240 min respectively. The geometric mean AUC (0–12) were 4507 ng·min·ml−1 and 8980 ng·min/ml. Peak to trough fluctuation ratios were 0.577 and 0.572. There were no significant differences between 4 mg or 8 mg formulations, for any of the parameters measured, after appropriate corrections for dose. The concentration-time profiles at steady-state showed little fluctuation in plasma salbutamol levels over the twelve hour dosing interval. These results show that 4 mg and 8 mg formulations of SCR provide smooth plasma profiles at steady-state with a twice daily dosing regime.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Asthma ; Salbutamol ; Tachyphylaxis ; Beta-adrenoceptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Tremor (Tr), chronotropic (HR) and metabolic (K, Glu) responses to cumulative doses of inhaled salbutamol (100 μg to 4000 μg) were compared in an age and sex matched group of 7 normal (N) and asthmatic (A) subjects. Comparison of regression lines between groups showed differences in HR and K. This was also reflected in attenuation of maximum responses in group A, for HR and K. These results show subsensitivity of chronotropic and hypokalaemic responses in patients with asthma, which may reflect tachyphylaxis from the effects of long term inhaled salbutamol therapy.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Cephalopod ; Retina ; Photoreceptor ; Potentials ; Cations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The ERG of the isolated, superfused half-eye of the cephalopod Sepiola atlantica, evoked by a brief (10 Μs) light flash, has been studied by recording intraretinal potentials with glass microelectrodes. The intensity-response characteristics of the potentials recorded at an electrode fixed at the surface (V s ) can be fitted by a simple equation derived from an equivalent circuit model based on a sodium conductance increase mechanism. Raising the external potassium level reduces the maximal response (δV m ), but does not alter the half-saturation intensity value (I 0). Reducing external sodium does not affect (δV m ), but increases I 0. Reducing external calcium also does not affect (δV m ), but decreases I 0. These effects are adequately described by the model if it is also assumed (a) that changing the external sodium does not significantly alter the transmembrane sodium gradient, and (b) that sodium and calcium ions compete for the sensitivity control mechanism. Differential-depth recording between the fixed electrode at the surface and another electrode that could be moved into the retina revealed that the two component appearance of the transretinal ERG arose from the superposition of two vitreal-negative waveforms. An initial “fast” component was mainly recorded in the photoreceptive distal segments while a “slow” component was prominent in the more proximal regions of the retina. Perfusion with high K+ salines resulted in a decrease in the amplitudes of both fast and slow components of the response whereas reducing external Na+ reduced the amplitude of the fast component at all light intensities but reduced the amplitude of the slow component only at low intensities. The amplitudes of both the fast and slow components increased on reducing external calcium, but the rate of rise and fall of the fast component was independent of external calcium. The rate of rise of the slow component was also independent of the external Ca2+ level but a minimum in the recovery time (t F ) was shifted to a lower intensity value at lower calcium concentrations. The shift of the minimum was to a higher intensity value with lowered sodium perfusing solutions. On the basis of the differential sensitivity of the two components to ion changes, as well as stimulus intensity and intraretinal distribution of the components, it is suggested that they reflect two distinct processes in the light-evoked potential of the photoreceptor cells.
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