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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Sanchez Goñi, Maria Fernanda; Desprat, Stéphanie; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Bassinot, Franck C; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M; Harrison, Sandy P; Allen, Judy R M; Anderson, R Scott; Behling, Hermann; Bonnefille, Raymonde; Burjachs, Francesc; Carrión, José S; Cheddadi, Rachid; Clark, James S; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Courtney Mustaphi, Colin J; DeBusk, Georg H; Dupont, Lydie M; Finch, Jemma M; Fletcher, William J; Giardini, Marco; González, Catalina; Gosling, William D; Grigg, Laurie D; Grimm, Eric C; Hayashi, Ryoma; Helmens, Karin F; Heusser, Linda E; Hill, Trevor R; Hope, Geoffrey; Huntley, Brian; Igarashi, Yaeko; Irino, Tomohisa; Jacobs, Bonnie Fine; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Kawai, Sayuri; Kershaw, A Peter; Kumon, Fujio; Lawson, Ian T; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Lézine, Anne-Marie; Liew, Ping-Mei; Magri, Donatella; Marchant, Robert; Margari, Vasiliki; Mayle, Francis E; McKenzie, G Merna; Moss, Patrick T; Müller, Stefanie; Müller, Ulrich C; Naughton, Filipa; Newnham, Rewi M; Oba, Tadamichi; Pérez-Obiol, Ramon P; Pini, Roberta; Ravazzi, Cesare; Roucoux, Katherine H; Rucina, Stephen M; Scott, Louis; Takahara, Hikaru; Tzedakis, Polychronis C; Urrego, Dunia H; van Geel, Bas; Valencia, Bryan G; Vandergoes, Marcus J; Vincens, Annie; Whitlock, Cathy L; Willard, Debra A; Yamamoto, Masanobu (2017): The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period. Earth System Science Data, 9(2), 679-695, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-9-679-2017
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Quaternary records provide an opportunity to examine the nature of the vegetation and fire responses to rapid past climate changes comparable in velocity and magnitude to those expected in the 21st century. The best documented examples of rapid climate change in the past are the warming events associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles during the last glacial period, which were sufficiently large to have had a potential feedback through changes in albedo and greenhouse gas emissions on climate. Previous reconstructions of vegetation and fire changes during the D-O cycles used independently constructed age models, making it difficult to compare the changes between different sites and regions. Here we present the ACER (Abrupt Climate Changes and Environmental Responses) global database which includes 93 pollen records from the last glacial period (73-15 ka) with a temporal resolution better than 1,000 years, 32 of which also provide charcoal records. A harmonized and consistent chronology based on radiometric dating (14C, 234U/230Th, OSL, 40Ar/39Ar dated tephra layers) has been constructed for 86 of these records, although in some cases additional information was derived using common control points based on event stratigraphy. The ACER database compiles metadata including geospatial and dating information, pollen and charcoal counts and pollen percentages of the characteristic biomes, and is archived in Microsoft ACCESS(TM).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 6 datasets
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: disturbance ; ecosystems ; forests ; indirect interactions ; landscape ecology ; Minnesota ; nitrogen ; nutrient cycling ; path analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Path analysis was used to determine the importance of long-term disturbance regime and the relative importances of correlations among vegetation patterns, disturbance history, and nitrogen (N) mineralization in old-growth forests of northwestern Minnesota. Leaf biomass (estimated by allometric equations), fire history (from fire scars on Pinus resinosa trees), and N mineralization rates (estimated from incubationsin situ) were determined from sample plots dominated by Betula papyrifera, Populus tremuloides, andP. grandidentata a mixture ofAcer saccharumandTilia americana, or Quercus borealis andOstrya virginiana. Results showed that topographic and soil-moisture controls on N mineralization, vegetation patterns, and disturbance are substantially stronger than is suggested by direct correlation. Indirect interactions among ecosystem variables played in important role. These interactions probably include the tendency for species that cycle large amounts of N to colonize more mesic sites that burned rarely in the past. Soil moisture was correlated both directly with N mineralization and indirectly, through its effects on vegetation pattern, and thus, litter quality. Although disturbance regime also depended on topography, the strengths of relationships between disturbance regime and other variables were relatively weak. These dependencies suggested that long-term fire regime is probably more a consequence than a cause for vegetation and fertility patterns. Topography, through its effects on soil moisture and microclimate, is an overriding influence on ecosystem properties, which in turn influence fire regime.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: analogs ; charcoal records ; fire regimes ; thin sections ; varves
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract We present a method for identifying analogs for past fire regimes and use it to assess similarity between late Quaternary fire regimes in northern Wisconsin and central New York and a reference set of charcoal series from just prior to presettlement time. The analog method is based on comparisons of distributions of charcoal accumulation rates from annually laminated sediments using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample D statistic (D). D is a nonparametric statistic expressing the difference between distributions that does not require assumptions concerning the shape of the distributions (e.g. normality, homoscedasticity) and it summarizes differences in a single index. Our study consists of (i) mapping D values obtained by comparisons between pairs of ‘reference’ charcoal series from the immediate presettlement (calibration) and (ii) identifying possible presettlement analogs from this reference set for Late Quaternary charcoal distributions. Our calibration analysis identified geographic transitions in charcoal transition that were much steeper than apparent from pollen data. Otherwise, geographic patterns in presettlement charcoal and pollen are comparable, including a group of oak/hardwood forest sites in Wisconsin, central Ontario, and New York having similar values, and another group of mostly northern hardwood/hemlock sites in Pennsylvania and Maine. Application to charcoal series dated after 11 000 yr BP at Wisconsin and New York suggests that fire regimes may have been different from those occurring at any of our reference sites. Differences in seasonality of climates and different fuel structures are a possible explanation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Ecological Society of America, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of Ecological Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ecological Applications 17 (2007): 1198–1212, doi:10.1890/05-1690.
    Description: The composition and successional status of a forest affect carbon storage and net ecosystem productivity, yet it remains unclear whether elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) will impact rates and trajectories of forest succession. We examined how CO2 enrichment (+200 μL CO2/L air differential) affects forest succession through growth and survivorship of tree seedlings, as part of the Duke Forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment in North Carolina, USA. We planted 2352 seedlings of 14 species in the low light forest understory and determined effects of elevated CO2 on individual plant growth, survival, and total sample biomass accumulation, an integrator of plant growth and survivorship over time, for six years. We used a hierarchical Bayes framework to accommodate the uncertainty associated with the availability of light and the variability in growth among individual plants. We found that most species did not exhibit strong responses to CO2. Ulmus alata (+21%), Quercus alba (+9.5%), and nitrogen-fixing Robinia pseudoacacia (+230%) exhibited greater mean annual relative growth rates under elevated CO2 than under ambient conditions. The effects of CO2 were small relative to variability within populations; however, some species grew better under low light conditions when exposed to elevated CO2 than they did under ambient conditions. These species include shade-intolerant Liriodendron tulipifera and Liquidambar styraciflua, intermediate-tolerant Quercus velutina, and shade-tolerant Acer barbatum, A. rubrum, Prunus serotina,Ulmus alata, and Cercis canadensis. Contrary to our expectation, shade-intolerant trees did not survive better with CO2 enrichment, and population-scale responses to CO2 were influenced by survival probabilities in low light. CO2 enrichment did not increase rates of sample biomass accumulation for most species, but it did stimulate biomass growth of shade-tolerant taxa, particularly Acer barbatum and Ulmus alata. Our data suggest a small CO2 fertilization effect on tree productivity, and the possibility of reduced carbon accumulation rates relative to today's forests due to changes in species composition.
    Description: This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-95ER62083, and by Terrestrial Ecosystems and Global Change (TECO) Grant No. DE-F602-97ER62463.
    Keywords: Bayesian analysis ; Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment ; Forest succession ; Global change ; Hierarchical Bayes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Ecological Society of America, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of Ecological Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Ecology 89 (2008): 585–587, doi:10.1890/07-0660.1.
    Description: This work was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant Number DE-FG02-95ER62083 and Terrestrial Ecosystems and Global Change (TECO) Grant Number DE-F602-97ER62463.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of NRC Research Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66 (2009): 1399-1403, doi:10.1139/F09-115.
    Description: Despite many years of study and protection, the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains on the brink of extinction. There is a crucial gap in our understanding of their habitat use in the migratory corridor along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Here, we characterize habitat suitability in migrating right whales in relation to depth, distance to shore, and the recently enacted ship speed regulations near major ports. We find that the range of suitable habitat exceeds previous estimates and that, as compared with the enacted 20 nautical mile buffer, the originally proposed 30 nautical mile buffer would protect more habitat for this critically endangered species.
    Description: This work was supported in part by SERDP/DoD grant W912HQ-04-C-0011 to A.J. Read and P.N. Halpin as well as a James B. Duke Fellowship and a Harvey L. Smith Dissertation Year Fellowship to R.S. Schick.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 423 (2003), S. 635-638 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Two hypotheses to explain potentially high forest biodiversity have different implications for the number and kinds of species that can coexist and the potential loss of biodiversity in the absence of speciation. The first hypothesis involves stabilizing mechanisms, which include tradeoffs ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 427 (2004), S. 696-697 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Clark and McLachlan reply The neutral model says that the relative abundance of a species is as likely to increase as it is to decrease, because species are ecologically identical. This hypothesis can be rejected if variance does not increase over time. We used a more ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillian Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 417 (2002), S. 732-735 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Ecologists have long postulated that density-dependent mortality maintains high tree diversity in the tropics. If species experience greater mortality when abundant, then more rare species can persist. Agents of density-dependent mortality (such as host-specific predators, and pathogens) may be ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 334 (1988), S. 233-235 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The study area near the prairie-forest border in Itasca State Park supports old-growth red pine (Pinus resinosa) trees with fire scars, indicating frequent fire before the advent of fire suppression in AD 1910 (ref. 1). Trees of aspen (Populus tremuloides, P. grandidentata) and paper birch (Betula ...
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