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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0875
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The ability of living organisms to survive on the smaller bodies in our solar system is examined. The three most significant sterilizing effects include ionizing radiation, prolonged extreme vacuum, and relentless thermal inactivation. Each could be effectively lethal, and even more so in combination, if organisms at some time resided in the surfaces of airless small bodies located near or in the inner solar system. Deep within volatile-rich bodies, certain environments theoretically might provide protection of dormant organisms against these sterilizing factors. Sterility of surface materials to tens or hundreds of centimeters of depth appears inevitable, and to greater depths for bodies which have resided for long periods sunward of about 2 A.U.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The PIA instrument is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, described in ref. 1. When a solid particle hits the target in front of the spectrometer, ions are formed, and those containing a positive charge are mass-analysed. Impacts are detected by the total ion charge released ana1 by the impact ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Arising from: T. M. McCollom & B. M. Hynek Nature 438, 1129–1131 (2005); McCollom & Hynek reply The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered sulphate-rich sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum on Mars, which are ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The sources for volatiles on Mars have been the subject of many hypotheses for exogenous influences including late accretion of volatile-enriched material, impact devolatilization to create massive early atmospheres, and even major bombardment by comets. However, the inventory of chemically active volatiles observable at the contemporary surface of Mars is consistent with domination by endogenous, subsequent planetary processes, viz., persistent magmatic outgassing. Volcanism on Mars has been widespread in both space and time. Notwithstanding important specific differences between the mantles of Earth and Mars, the geochemical similarities are such that the suite of gases emitted from Martian volcanic activity should include H2O, CO2, S-containing gases (e.g. H2S and/or SO2), and Cl-containing gases (e.g., Cl2 and/or HCl). H2O and CO2 exist in the atmosphere of Mars. Both are also present as surface condensates. However, spectroscopic observations of the Martian atmosphere clearly show that the S- and Cl-containing gases are severely depleted, with upper limits of less than or equal to 10(exp -7) the abundance of CO2. Likewise, there is no evidence of polar condensates of compounds of these elements as there is for CO2 and H2O. Within the soil, on the other hand, there has been direct measurement of incorporated H2O and abundant compounds containing S and Cl. Barring some as yet implausible geochemical sequestering process, the S/Cl ratio of about 6:1 in Martian soils implies a limit of 5% on the contribution of matter of solarlike composition (e.g., carbonaceous chondrite or cometary material) to these volatiles. Hence, exogenous sources are minor or not yet observed. From analysis of elemental trends in Martian soils, it has been recently shown that a simple two-component model can satisfy the Viking in situ measurements. Component A includes Si and most or all the Al, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Component B, taken as 16 +/- 3% by weight of the total, contains S and most or all the Cl and Mg. These results constrain several models of Martian soil mineralogy but are consistent with a mixture of silicates (such as Fe-rich clays and accessory minerals and soluble salts). The overall element profile is notably like shergottites, with significant incorporation of chemically reactive atmospheric gases from magmatic degassing.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Mars: Past, Present, and Future. Results from the MSATT Program, Part 1; p 15-16
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The accumulated knowledge on the chemistry and mineralogy of Martian surface materials is reviewed. Pertinent information obtained by direct analyses of the soil on Mars by the Viking Landers, by remote sensing of Mars from flyby and orbiting spacecraft, by telescopic observations from earth, and through detailed analyses of the SNC meteorites presumed to be Martian rocks are summarized and analyzed. A compositional model for Mars soil, giving selected average elemental concentrations of major and trace elements, is suggested. It is proposed that the fine surface materials on Mars are a multicomponent mixture of weathered and nonweathered minerals. Smectite clays, silicate mineraloids similar to palagonite, and scapolite are suggested as possible major candidate components among the weathered minerals.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: In: Mars (A93-27852 09-91); p. 594-625.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2006-10-26
    Description: Radiation spectrometry in space - requirements for accurate dosimetry
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Mars program has articulated a strategy to answer the question "Could Life have arisen on Mars?" by pursuing an in depth understanding of the location, persistence and expression of water in the surface and sub-surface environments. In addition to the need to understand the role of water in climate and climate history, detailed understanding of the surface and interior of the planet is required as well. Return of samples from the Martian surface is expected to provide key answers and site selection to maximize the science gleaned from samples becomes critical. Current and past orbital platforms have revealed a surface and planetary history of surprising complexity. While these remote views significantly advance our understanding of the planet it is clear that detailed regional surveys can both answer specific open questions as well as provide initial reconnaissance for subsequent landed operations.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Concepts and Approaches for Mars Exploration; Part 1; 55-56; LPI-Contrib-1062
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-02-14
    Description: Comets are some to the most primitive bodies in the solar system and therefore should contain elemental, chemical, and isotopic records of the early history of the solar system. An opportunity to perform in situ analyses of a comet nucleus exists with the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission. An integrated gas chromatograph/X-ray fluorescence instrument (MEDA), being proposed for inclusion onboard the CRAF spacecraft, will measure the molecular and elemental constituents of collected dust grains and ices. The gas chromatograph, employing helium ionization detectors and three columns designed to separate light gases, polar gases, and hydrocarbons will measure the volatile compounds of the biogenic elements thermally released from collected dust grains. The sensitivity of the GC for compounds of interest is at the picogram level. X-ray fluorescence utilized cryogenically cooled Si(Li) solid state detectors of nominal 150 eV resolution at 5.9 keV. Based on laboratory work with carbonaceous meteorites, both the GC and XRF can perform meaningful analyses with a few micrograms of collected comet dust.
    Keywords: SPACE BIOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Washington Second Symposium on Chemical Evolution and the Origin and Evolution of Life; p 54
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Description: Epoxyolefins cyclization, discussing bicyclic ethers from citronellal derivative as synthetic entries into diterpene series of natural products
    Keywords: CHEMISTRY
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