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  • 1
    Call number: SR 90.0008(77-17)
    In: Paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 24 S.
    ISBN: 0660015013
    Series Statement: Paper / Geological Survey of Canada 77-17
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Ottawa : Geological Survey of Canada
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.0008(77-22)
    In: Paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 43 S.
    ISBN: 0660008408
    Series Statement: Paper / Geological Survey of Canada 77-22
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Ottawa : Geological Survey of Canada
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.0008(84-16)
    In: Paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 230 S.
    ISBN: 0660117290
    Series Statement: Paper / Geological Survey of Canada 84-16
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 35 (1988), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-05-17
    Description: Volcanic ash layers preserved within the geologic record represent precise time markers that correlate disparate depositional environments and enable the investigation of synchronous and/or asynchronous behaviors in Earth system and archaeological sciences. However, it is generally assumed that only exceptionally powerful events, such as supereruptions (≥450 km3 of ejecta as dense-rock equivalent; recurrence interval of ∼105 yr), distribute ash broadly enough to have an impact on human society, or allow us to address geologic, climatic, and cultural questions on an intercontinental scale. Here we use geochemical, age, and morphological evidence to show that the Alaskan White River Ash (eastern lobe; A.D. 833–850) correlates to the “AD860B” ash (A.D. 846–848) found in Greenland and northern Europe. These occurrences represent the distribution of an ash over 7000 km, linking marine, terrestrial, and ice-core records. Our results indicate that tephra from more moderate-size eruptions, with recurrence intervals of ∼100 yr, can have substantially greater distributions than previously thought, with direct implications for volcanic dispersal studies, correlation of widely distributed proxy records, and volcanic hazard assessment.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0417
    Keywords: pollen analysis ; paleobotany ; mineralogy ; Great Plains ; drought ; paleosalinity ; paleoclimatology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Analyses of pollen, plant macrofossils, sediment mineralogy, geochemistry, and lithology of cores from Chappice Lake, southeastern Alberta, provide an outline of paleohydrological changes spanning the last 7300 radiocarbon years. Situated near the northern margin of the Great Plains, Chappice Lake is currently a small (1.5 km2), shallow (〈1 m), hypersaline lake. Results of this study suggest that the lake has experienced significant changes in water level and chemistry during the Holocene. From 7300 to 6000 BP the lake oscillated between relatively high stands and desiccation. From 6000 to 4400 BP it was smaller than present and ponded highly saline water. Although extreme water level variations of the preceding period had ceased, pronounced seasonal fluctuations persisted. Between 4400 and 2600 BP, lake level was more stable but gradually rising. Carbonates were a major component of the sediments deposited during this interval. A large, relatively fresh lake existed from 2600 to 1000 BP. Illite was the dominant mineral deposited during this period, but since then has been a minor constituent in a mineral suite dominated by detrital silicates. A series of low-water, high-salinity stands occurred between 1000 and 600 BP, although these low stands were not as pronounced as low-water intervals in the middle Holocene. Relatively high water levels were sustained from 600 BP until the late 1800s. The lake declined significantly in the last one hundred years, notably during the historically documented droughts of the late 1800s, 1920s, 1930s, and 1980s. The timing of paleohydrological events at Chappice Lake corresponds closely with well documented Holocene climatic intervals, such as the Hypsithermal, Neoglaciation, Medieval Warm Period, and Little Ice Age. In addition, historic lake-level fluctuations can be related directly to climate. As a result, the Chappice Lake sedimentary succession offers a rare opportunity to obtain a high-resolution, surrogate record of Holocene climate on the northern Great Plains, and to observe the response of lake chemistry and biota to significant environmental change.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-04-01
    Description: On 6 August 2010, a large (~50 Mm 3 ) debris avalanche occurred on the flank of Mount Meager in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. We studied the deposits to infer the morphodynamics of the landslide from initiation to emplacement. Structure from motion (SfM) photogrammetry, based on oblique photos taken with a standard SLR camera during a low helicopter traverse, was used to create high-resolution orthophotos and base maps. Interpretation of the images and maps allowed us to recognize two main rheological phases in the debris avalanche. Just below the source area, in the valley of Capricorn Creek, the landslide separated into two phases, one water-rich and more mobile, and the other water-poor and less mobile. The water-rich phase spread quickly, achieved high superelevation on the valley sides, and left distal scattered deposits. The main water-poor phase moved more slowly, did not superelevate, and formed a thick continuous deposit (up to ~30 m) on the valley floor. The water-poor flow deposit has structural features such as hummocks, brittle-ductile faults, and shear zones. Our study, based on a freshly emplaced deposit, advances understanding of large mass movements by showing that a single landslide can develop multiple rheology phases with different behaviors. Rheological evolution and separation of phases should always be taken into account to provide better risk assessment scenarios.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-09-20
    Description: Volcanic ash layers preserved within the geologic record represent precise time markers that correlate disparate depositional environments and enable the investigation of synchronous and/or asynchronous behaviors in Earth system and archaeological sciences. However, it is generally assumed that only exceptionally powerful events, such as supereruptions (≥450 km 3 of ejecta as dense-rock equivalent; recurrence interval of ~10 5 yr), distribute ash broadly enough to have an impact on human society, or allow us to address geologic, climatic, and cultural questions on an intercontinental scale. Here we use geochemical, age, and morphological evidence to show that the Alaskan White River Ash (eastern lobe; A.D. 833–850) correlates to the "AD860B" ash (A.D. 846–848) found in Greenland and northern Europe. These occurrences represent the distribution of an ash over 7000 km, linking marine, terrestrial, and ice-core records. Our results indicate that tephra from more moderate-size eruptions, with recurrence intervals of ~100 yr, can have substantially greater distributions than previously thought, with direct implications for volcanic dispersal studies, correlation of widely distributed proxy records, and volcanic hazard assessment.
    Print ISSN: 0091-7613
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2682
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Description: We present an integrated approach to investigate the seismically triggered Madison Canyon landslide (volume = 20 Mm3), which killed 26 people in Montana, USA, in 1959. We created engineering geomorphological maps and conducted field surveys, long-range terrestrial digital photogrammetry, and preliminary 2D numerical modelling with the objective of determining the conditioning factors, mechanisms, movement behaviour, and evolution of the failure. We emphasise the importance of both endogenic (i.e. seismic) and exogenic (i.e. geomorphic) processes in conditioning the slope for failure and hypothesise a sequence of events based on the morphology of the deposit and seismic modelling. A section of the slope was slowly deforming before a magnitude-7.5 earthquake with an epicentre 30 km away triggered the catastrophic failure in August 1959. The failed rock mass rapidly fragmented as it descended the slope towards Madison River. Part of the mass remained relatively intact as it moved on a layer of pulverised debris. The main slide was followed by several debris slides, slumps, and rockfalls. The slide debris was extensively modified soon after the disaster by the US Army Corps of Engineers to provide a stable outflow channel from newly formed Earthquake Lake. Our modelling and observations show that the landslide occurred as a result of long-term damage of the slope induced by fluvial undercutting, erosion, weathering, and past seismicity, and due to the short-term triggering effect of the 1959 earthquake. Static models suggest the slope was stable prior to the 1959 earthquake; failure would have required a significant reduction in material strength. Preliminary dynamic models indicate that repeated seismic loading was a critical process for catastrophic failure. Although the ridge geometry and existing tension cracks in the initiation zone amplified ground motions, the most important factors in initiating failure were pre-existing discontinuities and seismically induced damage. Amplification played a secondary role. ©2015 Springer-Verlag Wien
    Print ISSN: 0723-2632
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-453X
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-11-10
    Description: The Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) once covered an area comparable to that of Greenland. Previous geologic evidence and numerical models indicate that the ice sheet covered much of westernmost Canada as late as 12.5 thousand years ago (ka). New data indicate that substantial areas throughout westernmost Canada were ice free prior to 12.5 ka and some as early as 14.0 ka, with implications for climate dynamics and the timing of meltwater discharge to the Pacific and Arctic oceans. Early Bølling-Allerød warmth halved the mass of the CIS in as little as 500 years, causing 2.5 to 3.0 meters of sea-level rise. Dozens of cirque and valley glaciers, along with the southern margin of the CIS, advanced into recently deglaciated regions during the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas.
    Keywords: Atmospheric Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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