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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 105 data points
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-03-10
    Description: We measured the vertical distribution of TEP and CSP at a site on the Bermuda Rise by staining parallel samples with Alcian Blue and Coomassie Brilliant Blue, during five research cruises in 2012-2013. We used a new spectrophotometric method, analogous to that for TEP, to measure CSP concentration relative to bovine serum albumin (BSA) standard aggregates. The method is based on the linear relationship between CSP concentration and the absorbance of the eluted dye from a CBB-protein complex. TEP concentrations ranged from 23-53 µg XG eqL-1, and decreased with depth. CSP concentration ranged from 2-24 µg BSA eqL-1, and values decreased with depth, but the CSP max was slightly below that of TEP. The CSP and TEP profile shapes and loss rates were different. These differences support the idea that the two particle types have different origins. Either CSP is more labile than TEP, or TEP and CSP are produced at the same depth, but TEP ascends to the surface due to the combination of its buoyancy, and the high TEP to solid ratio found in low productivity regions.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 5927 data points
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  • 4
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    In:  [Poster] In: Gordon Research Conference - Chemical Geography of the Sea, 04.-09.08.2013, Biddeford, USA .
    Publication Date: 2013-08-27
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Cisternas Novoa, Carolina; Le Moigne, Frédéric A C; Engel, Anja (2019): Composition and vertical flux of particulate organic matter to the oxygen minimum zone of the central Baltic Sea: impact of a sporadic North Sea inflow. Biogeosciences, 16(4), 927-947, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-927-2019
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: Here, we investigate the composition and vertical fluxes of POM in two deep basins of the Baltic Sea (GB: Gotland Basin and LD: Landsort Deep).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 7 datasets
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-12-19
    Description: Highlights: • TEPs and CSPs showed different production patterns and particle-association behaviors. • TEPs and CSPs had different vertical distributions in the Sargasso Sea. • CSP as well as TEP gels are linked by cation bridging. • FlowCAM can be used for in-situ visualization and imaging of TEPs and CSPs in parallel-stained samples. • In-situ visualization of TEPs and CSPs led to new insights about particle interaction and their role in aggregation. Abstract: The discovery of ubiquitous, abundant and transparent gel-like particles, such as the polysaccharide-containing transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and protein-containing Coomassie stainable particles (CSP) has changed our conception of particle–organism interaction and created new questions about the origin, composition, and role of these particles in aquatic systems. Using both standard and novel staining methods, we studied these gel-like particles to determine whether CSP and TEP are sub-units of the same particle, are distinct particles with different characteristics and behaviors, or are both. Our seawater mesocosm results show that phytoplankton produce both TEP and CSP; however, their highest abundances occur at differences phases in the phytoplankton bloom. We developed a new technique for visualizing stained transparent material in unfiltered aqueous samples with the FlowCAM; this technique allows in-situ visualization and imaging of TEP and CSP in parallel stained samples. Visual examination of stained and unstained TEP and CSP from seawater microcosms, marine algal cultures, and freshwater showed that TEP and CSP have different shape, size and particle-association behavior. In a diatom-dominated microcosm, TEP concentrations were higher than CSP concentrations and unlike CSP, TEP were usually associated with diatom cells or aggregates. The cyanobacteria culture, however, showed higher CSP than TEP concentrations and aggregates of those cells appeared to be CSP-rich. Vertical and seasonal distributions of TEP and CSP in the Sargasso Sea were different. Even though both types of particles were most abundant in the upper 100 m of the water column, CSP closely followed fluorescence and total particle concentration, while the highest TEP concentration was always in the shallowest sample collected. Thus, we conclude that TEP and CSP are different particles, produced by different species at different growth phases and rates. They have different roles and are affected by different processes according to the community composition and environmental conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Engel, Anja; Cisternas Novoa, Carolina; Wurst, Mascha; Endres, Sonja; Tang, Tiantian; Schartau, Markus; Lee, Cindy (2014): No detectable effect of CO2 on elemental stoichiometry of Emiliania huxleyi in nutrient-limited, acclimated continuous cultures. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 507, 15-30, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10824
    Publication Date: 2019-09-18
    Description: Effects of CO2 concentration on elemental composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi were studied in phosphorus-limited, continuous cultures that were acclimated to experimental conditions for 30 d prior to the first sampling. We determined phytoplankton and bacterial cell numbers, nutrients, particulate components like organic carbon (POC), inorganic carbon (PIC), nitrogen (PN), organic phosphorus (POP), transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON), in addition to carbonate system parameters at CO2 levels of 180, 380 and 750 µatm. No significant difference between treatments was observed for any of the measured variables during repeated sampling over a 14 d period. We considered several factors that might lead to these results, i.e. light, nutrients, carbon overconsumption and transient versus steady-state growth. We suggest that the absence of a clear CO2 effect during this study does not necessarily imply the absence of an effect in nature. Instead, the sensitivity of the cell towards environmental stressors such as CO2 may vary depending on whether growth conditions are transient or sufficiently stable to allow for optimal allocation of energy and resources. We tested this idea on previously published data sets where PIC and POC divided by the corresponding cell abundance of E. huxleyi at various pCO2 levels and growth rates were available.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 3723 data points
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: Particle sinking is a major form of transport for photosynthetically fixed carbon to below the euphotic zone via the biological carbon pump (BCP). Oxygen (O2) depletion may improve the efficiency of the BCP. However, the mechanisms by which O2 deficiency can enhance particulate organic matter (POM) vertical fluxes are not well understood. Here, we investigate the composition and vertical fluxes of POM in two deep basins of the Baltic Sea (GB: Gotland Basin and LD: Landsort Deep). The two basins showed different O2 regimes resulting from the intrusion of oxygen-rich water from the North Sea that ventilated the water column below 140 m in GB, but not in LD, during the time of sampling. In June 2015, we deployed surface-tethered drifting sediment traps in oxic surface waters (GB: 40 and 60 m; LD: 40 and 55 m), within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ; GB: 110 m and LD: 110 and 180 m) and at recently oxygenated waters by the North Sea inflow in GB (180 m). The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the different O2 conditions in the water column of GB and LD affected the composition and vertical flux of sinking particles and caused differences in export efficiency between those two basins. The composition and vertical flux of sinking particles were different in GB and LD. In GB, particulate organic carbon (POC) flux was 18 % lower in the shallowest trap (40 m) than in the deepest sediment trap (at 180 m). Particulate nitrogen (PN) and Coomassie stainable particle (CSP) fluxes decreased with depth, while particulate organic phosphorus (POP), biogenic silicate (BSi), chlorophyll a (Chl a) and transparent exopolymeric particle (TEP) fluxes peaked within the core of the OMZ (110 m); this coincided with the presence of manganese oxide-like (MnOx-like) particles aggregated with organic matter. In LD, vertical fluxes of POC, PN and CSPs decreased by 28 %, 42 % and 56 %, respectively, from the surface to deep waters. POP, BSi and TEP fluxes did not decrease continuously with depth, but they were higher at 110 m. Although we observe a higher vertical flux of POP, BSi and TEPs coinciding with abundant MnOx-like particles at 110 m in both basins, the peak in the vertical flux of POM and MnOx-like particles was much higher in GB than in LD. Sinking particles were remarkably enriched in BSi, indicating that diatoms were preferentially included in sinking aggregates and/or there was an inclusion of lithogenic Si (scavenged into sinking particles) in our analysis. During this study, the POC transfer efficiency (POC flux at 180 m over 40 m) was higher in GB (115 %) than in LD (69 %), suggesting that under anoxic conditions a smaller portion of the POC exported below the euphotic zone was transferred to 180 m than under reoxygenated conditions present in GB. In addition, the vertical fluxes of MnOx-like particles were 2 orders of magnitude higher in GB than LD. Our results suggest that POM aggregates with MnOx-like particles formed after the inflow of oxygen-rich water into GB, and the formation of those MnOx–OM-rich particles may alter the composition and vertical flux of POM, potentially contributing to a higher transfer efficiency of POC in GB. This idea is consistent with observations of fresher and less degraded organic matter in deep waters of GB than LD.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
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    American Society of Limnology and Oceanography
    In:  Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 12 . pp. 604-616.
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Coomassie stainable particles (CSP) are protein-containing transparent particles that can be stained with Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) and are found abundantly in aquatic systems; however, their distribution and role remain poorly known, in part due to the lack of an efficient method to study them. We developed a new, simple, and low cost semi-quantitative spectrophotometric method for determination of CSP in aquatic systems. The method is analogous to that used to quantify polysaccharide-rich gel particles called transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP). CSP concentration is determined relative to bovine serum albumin (BSA) standard aggregates (in a manner similar to how TEP is quantified relative to xanthan gum). The method is based on the linear relationship between CSP concentration and the absorbance of the eluted dye from a CBB-protein complex, which has an absorbance maximum (λmax) at 615 nm. The limit of detection and the precision (%RSD) for the proposed method are 6 μg BSA equivalent and 11%, respectively. The new spectrophotometric method was validated with the existing microscopic method. This new method to quantify CSP is simple, enables rapid measurements, and allows a more efficient comparison with TEP concentrations than the present microscopic method. The spectrophotometric analyses will further the investigation of the abundance, distribution, and role of CSP in the biogeochemistry of the ocean.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean is tightly connected to the coastal upwelling system off Peru. The high biological productivity off Peru is therefore, driven by the complex interplay between the amount of nutrients recycled by remineralisation processes in the OMZ and the upwelling which brings these nutrients to the surface layer. However, surprisingly little is known about organic matter cycling and its effects on biogeochemical processes in the OMZ off Peru. To this end we conducted a first comprehensive study on the role of organic matter for the biogeochemical processes and the maintenance of the OMZ off Peru. M138 combined measurements of marine biogeochemistry, microbiology, physical oceanography and air chemistry with foci on (i) the efficiency of the biological pump, (ii) the nitrogen cycle processes in the OMZ, (iii) the ventilation of the OMZ as well as (iv) the air/sea gas exchange across the ocean/atmosphere interface and (v) aerosol deposition. The METEOR cruise M138 was performed as part of the third phase of the SFB754 'Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' (www.sfb754.de).
    Type: Report , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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