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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1421
    Keywords: alkylation ; groundwater ; mold ; ocean ; polonium ; volatilization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Polonium, like other elements in the Group VI Oxygen series (S, Se, Te), has the potential to form volatile alkyl derivatives. This may be evident in its pervasive radioactive excesses in the atmosphere and coastal waters, and its deficiency in surface open ocean waters. We present evidence for the formation of volatile polonium species. The first evidence comes from duplicating experiments that proved the existence of volatile tellurium, its Group VI congener. Cultures of bread mold at room temperature spiked with polonium tracers showed a significant and reproducible loss of about 0.5% per day of volatile polonium species. In another set of experiments, between 30–50% loss of210Po was observed from Floridan groundwater when nitrogen was bubbled through it over durations of 5–30 minutes. Polonium volatility is highly relevant for biogeochemical studies because it may provide a natural radiochemical tracer for recycling of similar volatile sulfur and other Group VI metal species between the geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Trace metals (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and stable lead isotopes) have been analyzed in precipitation and total aerosols collected in the northwest Atlantic troposphere in April and November 1989. According to stable lead isotope signatures we encountered two main air mass sources, Mediterranean easterlies (206Pb/207Pb=1.131) and US westerlies (206Pb/207Pb=1.195–1.205). The phasing out of leaded gasoline has been invoked to explain the decrease of the 206Pb/207Pb ratios from 1.22 to 1.20 for the past 10 years in North America. Based on trajectory analyses, intermediate 206Pb/207Pb ratios are explained by a mixing of pure US westerlies with Canadian air masses (206Pb/207Pb=1.190–1.195) or Mediterranean air masses (206Pb/207Pb=1.18–1.19). Isentropic trajectories are very useful in explaining the variability of trace metal concentrations, a result of the fluctuating transport range of anthropogenic aerosols to remote marine areas of the North Atlantic. Lead concentrations appear to be closely correlated to the air mass transport patterns as defined from the meteorological analyses. For instance oceanic air masses transported over remote marine areas for more than three days were characterized by lead concentrations 2 to 10 times lower (Pb=0.5 to 2 ng/scm) than coastal air masses (Pb=3 to 10 ng/scm). Anthropogenic trace metal concentrations are generally in good agreement with the air mass signatures which display Pb and Cu, Ni, Zn concentrations higher than 2 and 10 ng/scm respectively in aerosol samples for the US source. Trace metal elemental ratios and soil enrichment factors were used to define industrial sources. Aerosol originating from the US exhibits the distinct industrial signature of Cu/Ni production and coal-oil combustion, while steel metallurgy could account for more than 50% of the overall Mn input into the Northwest Atlantic ocean.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: lead ; pollution ; mid-Atlantic bight ; radionuclide ; air mass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Atmospheric depositional fluxes of 7Be and210Pb (bulk) and stable Pb (wet) were measuredsimultaneously for one year (from September 1995–August 1996) atStillpond, Maryland on the uppereastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay. The annual total(bulk) depositional fluxes of 210Pb and 7Bewere 0.78 and 13 dpm cm-2, respectively, andagree well with other previously reported results atnearby locations such as Norfolk, VA and Lewes, DE. The wet depositional flux of stable Pb (58 ng cm-2 yr-1)was also similar to thatmeasured at other Chesapeake sites during 1990–1991(55 ng cm-2 yr-1, for both Wye and Elms,Maryland). This suggests that a constant Pb flux hasbeen reached since the mandatory use of unleadedgasoline was instituted. The concentrations of7Be, 210Pb, and to a lesser extent stable Pbwere diluted exponentially by precipitation, based onconcentrations versus precipitation plots. Due tohigher enrichment of 210Pb in the lowertroposphere, the dilution effect was largest on210Pb (i.e., controlled mainly by below-cloudscavenging processes), and thus its depositional fluxincrease is negligible as precipitation amountincreases. A good correlation between the amount ofprecipitation and total depositional flux of 7Beand stable Pb, which are more enriched in the uppertroposphere, suggests that precipitation amount isimportant in controlling their fluxes (i.e.,controlled by both below-cloud scavenging and in-cloudcondensation processes). Based on 7Be versus210Pb plots, it appears that 7Be, relativeto 210Pb, is less efficiently scavenged bysnowfall. Our results suggest that in addition toprecipitation amounts, marine air-mass transport orsnowfall may be important factors in controlling theseasonal variability of the fallout fluxes of tracemetals in coastal areas.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1040-0397
    Keywords: Zinc ; Complexation ; Seawater ; Rainwater ; Pseudopolarogram ; Trace metal ; Voltammetry ; Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry ; Complexometric titration ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A novel electrochemical method is described for the examination of metal-organic complexation in natural waters. The technique is based upon the comparison of square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) ‘pseudopolarograms’ (current vs. deposition potential plots) for natural samples with those obtained for metal complexation with selected ‘model’ binding ligands at constant ionic strength. For electrochemically active zinc species in seawater, the pseudopolarogram approach allowed the estimation of thermodynamic stability constants (KML) within a stability constant window of approximately 104-106 M-1 up to ≥ 1015 M-1. For a natural rainwater sample, the pseudopolarogram indicated only one zinc class, probably a mixture of ‘free’ and/or inorganically complexed species. In an application to a coastal seawater sample, three species were identified: (1) weakly complexed, log KZnL = 4.14 ± 0.92 M-1; (2) moderately complexed, log KZnL = 7.77 ± 0.62 M-1; (3) strongly complexed, log KZnL = 11.45 ± 0.95 M-1. Results are compared to those obtained using complexometric titration with SWASV at a thin mercury film-glassy carbon rotating disk (TMF-GCRD) electrode. The latter detected a single strong complexing ligand (or ligand class), with [L′] = 15.25 ± 0.04 nM and log K′ZnL ≥ 10.9 M-1.
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-515X
    Keywords: continental shelf ; estuaries ; mass balance ; nitrogen ; North Atlantic ; nutrient budget ; phosphorus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Five large rivers that discharge on the western North Atlantic continental shelf carry about 45% of the nitrogen (N) and 70% of the phosphorus (P) that others estimate to be the total flux of these elements from the entire North Atlantic watershed, including North, Central and South America, Europe, and Northwest Africa. We estimate that 61 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 20 · 109 moles y−1 of P from the large rivers are buried with sediments in their deltas, and that an equal amount of N and P from the large rivers is lost to the shelf through burial of river sediments that are deposited directly on the continental slope. The effective transport of active N and P from land to the shelf through the very large rivers is thus reduced to 292 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 13 · 109 moles y−1 of P. The remaining riverine fluxes from land must pass through estuaries. An analysis of annual total N and total P budgets for various estuaries around the North Atlantic revealed that the net fractional transport of these nutrients through estuaries to the continental shelf is inversely correlated with the log mean residence time of water in the system. This is consistent with numerous observations of nutrient retention and loss in temperate lakes. Denitrification is the major process responsible for removing N in most estuaries, and the fraction of total N input that is denitrified appears to be directly proportional to the log mean water residence time. In general, we estimate that estuarine processes retain and remove 30–65% of the total N and 10–55% of the total P that would otherwise pass into the coastal ocean. The resulting transport through estuaries to the shelf amounts to 172–335 · 109 moles y−1 of N and 11–19 · 109 moles y−1 of P. These values are similar to the effective contribution from the large rivers that discharge directly on the shelf. For the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, N fluxes from major rivers and estuaries exceed atmospheric deposition by a factor of 3.5–4.7, but this varies widely among regions of the shelf. For example, on the U.S. Atlantic shelf and on the northwest European shelf, atmospheric deposition of N may exceed estuarine exports. Denitrification in shelf sediments exceeds the combined N input from land and atmosphere by a factor of 1.4–2.2. This deficit must be met by a flux of N from the deeper ocean. Burial of organic matter fixed on the shelf removes only a small fraction of the total N and P input (2–12% of N from land and atmosphere; 1–17% of P), but it may be a significant loss for P in the North Sea and some other regions. The removal of N and P in fisheries landings is very small. The gross exchange of N and P between the shelf and the open ocean is much larger than inputs from land and, for the North Atlantic shelf as a whole, it may be much larger than the N and P removed through denitrification, burial, and fisheries. Overall, the North Atlantic continental shelf appears to remove some 700–950· 109 moles of N each year from the deep ocean and to transport somewhere between 18 and 30 · 109 moles of P to the open sea. If the N and P associated with riverine sediments deposited on the continental slope are included in the total balance, the net flux of N to the shelf is reduced by 60 · 109 moles y−1 and the P flux to the ocean is increased by 20 · 109 moles y−1. These conclusions are quite tentative, however, because of large uncertainties in our estimates of some important terms in the shelf mass balance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Sedwick, Peter; Church, T M; Bowie, Andrew R; Marsay, Christopher M; Ussher, S J; Achilles, K M; Lethaby, P J; Johnson, Rodney J; Sarin, Manmohan M; McGillicuddy, Dennis (2005): Iron in the Sargasso Sea (Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study region) during summer: Eolian imprint, spatiotemporal variability, and ecological implications. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 19, GB4006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002445
    Publication Date: 2019-06-08
    Description: We report iron measurements for water column and aerosol samples collected in the Sargasso Sea during July-August 2003 (summer 2003) and April-May 2004 (spring 2004). Our data reveal a large seasonal change in the dissolved iron (dFe) concentration of surface waters in the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study region, from ~1-2 nM in summer 2003, when aerosol iron concentrations were high (mean 10 nmol/m**3), to ~0.1-0.2 nM in spring 2004, when aerosol iron concentrations were low (mean 0.64 nmol/m**3). During summer 2003, we observed an increase of ~0.6 nM in surface water dFe concentrations over 13 days, presumably due to eolian iron input; an estimate of total iron deposition over this same period suggests an effective solubility of 3-30% for aerosol iron. Our summer 2003 water column profiles show potentially growth-limiting dFe concentrations (0.02-0.19 nM) coinciding with a deep chlorophyll maximum at 100-150 m depth, where phytoplankton biomass is typically dominated by Prochlorococcus during late summer.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 10 datasets
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-06-08
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 40 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-08
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 40 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-08
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 16 data points
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