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  • 1
    Call number: SR 96.0498(264)
    In: Report
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 30 S.
    Series Statement: Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie 264
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-686-264
    In: Report
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 30 S. : graph. Darst.
    ISSN: 0937-1060
    Series Statement: Report / Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie 264
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Climatic change 31 (1995), S. 455-474 
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Three published data sets of upper-air global temperatures, two from radiosondes and one from satellites, are examined and compared for the lower stratosphere and troposphere. The global lower stratosphere exhibits a downward trend for the past 16+ years of -0.53 °C (-0.33 °C per decade). Since the 1960's (using radiosondes before 1979 which are subject to known and unknown inhomogeneities) it is likely that there has been a downward trend of about the same magnitude. Significant issues of the stratospheric radiosonde data are: (1) that the long-term time series is biased toward spurious cooling; and (2) the earliest years of Angell display unrealistic variability. Inhomogeneities in satellite data due to orbit drifting and instrument calibration are examined. The tropospheric temperature has shown a downward trend of -0.11 °C since 1979 (-0.07 °C per decade). Beginning in earlier years, (relying only on radiosonde data before 1979) the estimated warming trend since the late 1950's is +0.07 to +0.11 °C per decade. Tropospheric and surface temperature anomalies are compared. There is concern that the disproportionate representation of extratropical continents, with their high temperature variance, may bias any long term ‘global’ surface trend toward a maximum-possible value than would be calculated had all regions (including those with much lower responsiveness) been monitored.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The potential for residual hydrometeor contamination effects in the global temperature time series produced by Spencer and Christy from MSU channel 2 (MSU2) data has been addressed by Prabhakara et al. (1995, 1996). They use tropical oceanic MSU channel l (MSU1) data to estimate the hydrometeor effects on MSU2. We present several lines of evidence to show that their technique greatly overestimates the hydrometeor effects on MSU2. This overestimation is due to the faulty assumption that the hydrometeors that cause MSU1 warming are the same as (or always exist with) the hydrometeors that cause cooling in MSU2. Instead, the hydrometeors responsible for MSU1 warming are liquid phase, while those responsible for MSU2 cooling are large ice particles. Because liquid phase clouds are much more widespread than the large-ice portions of deep convective systems, their method greatly overestimates the areal coverage of contaminated tropical MSU2 data. In addition, we show that the convective screening procedure of Spencer and Christy removes the negative correlation between MSU1 and MSU2 their conclusions rest upon. Radiosonde validation of monthly tropical MSU2 anomalies over the tropical West Pacific also support these conclusions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Macmillan Magazines Ltd.
    Nature 389 (1997), S. 342-342 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] We believe that lower-tropospheric temperatures measured directly by satellites have excellent long-term accuracy, as seen by comparisons with independent atmospheric measurements from weather balloons. Our results contradict indirect measurements by Hurrell and Trenberth who claimed that the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 367 (1994), S. 325-325 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - The temperature of the global atmosphere, particularly the lower troposphere (the lowest 7 km), is expected to rise because concentrations of gases such as carbon dioxide are increasing. Sophisticated yet still relatively idealized ocean-atmosphere models indicate that the ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: This paper describes a method for determining global atmospheric-temperature anomalies by means of satellite microwave radiometry. It is shown that microwave measurements of molecular oxygen thermal emission by the Microwave Sounding Units (MSUs) flying aboard the NOAA-6 and NOAA-7 can be used to monitor tropospheric temperature anomalies on global basis to a high level of precision. Comparisons between monthly MSU-derived hemispheric temperature anomalies with those computed from surface thermometer data show a very good agreement over the United States, although not for the hemispheres, especially the Southern Hemisphere. In this latter case, the poor agreement is ascribed to weaker thermal coupling between the ocean and the deep troposphere than that over the U.S. Annual anomalies for the hemispheres exhibit better correlations than do monthly anomalies.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 3; 1111-112
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more precise atmospheric temperature information than that obtained from the relatively sparse distribution of thermometers over the earth's surface. Accurate global atmospheric temperature estimates are needed for detection of possible greenhouse warming, evaluation of computer models of climate change, and for understanding important factors in the climate system. Analysis of the first 10 years (1979 to 1988) of satellite measurements of lower atmospheric temperature changes reveals a monthly precision of 0.01 C, large temperature variability on time scales from weeks to several years, but no obvious trend for the 10-year period. The warmest years, in descending order, were 1987, 1988, 1983, and 1980. The years 1984, 1985, and 1986 were the coolest.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Science (ISSN 0036-8075); 247; 1558-156
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The study of surface-atmosphere interactions has begun with studies of the effect of altering the ocean and land boundaries. A ten year simulation of global climate using observed sea surface temperature anomalies has begun using the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM1). The results for low resolution (R15) were computed for the first 8 years of the simulation and compared with the observed surface temperatures and the MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) observations of tropospheric temperature. A simulation at higher resolution (T42) was done to ascertain the effect of interactive soil hydrology on the system response to an El Nino sea surface temperature perturbation. Initial analysis of this simulations was completed.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA(MSFC FY91 Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Research Program Review; p 7
    Format: application/pdf
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