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  • 1
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Makroporöse hochvernetzte Copolymere aus Styrol (St) und Divinylbenzol (DVB) wurden durch Lösungs- und Perlpolymerisation hergestellt. Die dargestellten Träger ermöglichten die Pfropfung von Poly(N-vinyl-tert-butylcarbamat) (PVCa) entweder durch Addition von VCa-Makroradikalen an die am unlöslichen Träger anhängenden Doppelbindungen oder durch Termination von VCa-Makroradikalen mit Radikalen, die sich an der Trägeroberfläche befinden. Poly(vinylamin) (PVAm) gepfropft auf St-DVB Träger wurde durch Hydrolyse von gepfropftem PVCa mit HCl und nachfolgende Entfernung von amingebundenem HCl mittels NaOH erhalten. Heterogene bifunktionelle Katalysatoren wurden dargestellt durch Bindung von Kobalt(II) 4,4′,4″,4‴-tetracarboxyphthalocyanin (CoPc(COOH)4) an gepfropftes PVAm. Die hergestellten Katalysatoren wurden zur Oxidation von Thiolen zu Disulfiden, sowohl in vorwiegend apolaren a l s auch in wäßrigen Lösungsmitteln verwendet. Es wurde bewiesen, daß eine große innere Oberfläe, ein hinreichend grolßer mittlerer Porendurchmesser und Zugänglichkeit der anhlngenden Doppelbindungen wichtige Voraussetzungen sind für die Anwendbarkeit vom makroporösen St-DVB Copolymeren als Träger für den PVAm-CoPc(COOH)4 Katalysator.
    Notes: Macroporous highly crosslinked styrene(St)-divinylbenzene(DVB) copolymers were prepared by solution and suspension polymerization techniques. The obtained materials allowed the grafting of poly(N-vinyl-tert-butylcarbamate) (PVCa) either by addition of VCa macroradicals to the solid bound double bonds or by termination involving the reaction of VCa macroradicals with radicals present on the carrier. Poly(vinylamine) (PVAm) grafted on St-DVB carriers was obtained after the hydrolysis of grafted PVCa with HCl and the subsequent removal of the aminebonded HCl by means of NaOH. Heterogeneous bifunctional catalysts were obtained by attachment of cobalt(II) 4,4′,4″,4‴-tetracarboxyphthalocyanine (CoPc(COOH)4) to the grafted PVAm. The prepared catalysts were applied to the autoxidation of thiols to disulfides, both in predominantly apolar media and in aqueous media. It was demonstrated, that important prerequisites for the applicability of macroporous St-DVB copolymers as carriers for the PVAm-CoPc(COOH)4 catalyst include a high surface area, a sufficiently large average pore diameter and accessibility of the pendent double bonds.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-04-26
    Description: Probiotic is considered as a remedy to solve disease problem in shrimp aquaculture. Shrimp body and environment bacterial flora are recommended as reliable source for extracting of beneficial bacteria. Therefore, 5000 pieces of post larvae of Penaeus monodon were distributed equally in 4 tanks in probiotic and antibiotic free condition up to juvenile. Then microbiological samples from digestive system, muscles, body surface, rearing water and tank sediment were inoculated onto the selective media plates. Incident of total bacteria, Vibrio, Pseudomonas and Entrobacteriaceae were evaluated in different body parts and rearing environment of shrimp. The highest bacteria count for total bacteria, Vibrio, Pseudomonas was occurred in sediment followed by digestive system. No Entrobacteriaceae was observed from all samples. Isolated bacteria were identified and placed in 7 genera consisted of Vibrio, Shewanella, Burkholderia, Clavibacter, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, while one genus remained unidentified. Genus Shewanella exhibited highest frequent bacteria in digestive system of P. monodon which may be indicated its ability to colonization in digestive system. Shewanella algae was selected from whole isolated bacteria as candidate probiotic via well plate diffusion technique and cross streak antagonistic test against Vibrio harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus. It was able to digest lipid and protein in tributyrin agar and skim milk agar.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-18
    Description: Blood is collected from experimental animals for a wide range of scientific purposes including; hematology, clinical biochemistry parameters, immunology, studies in bacteriology, parasitology and investigations in reproductive performance and health. The number of methods employed to collect blood from fish include; the puncture of caudal vein, dorsal aorta or cardiac vessels and the severance of the caudal vein. Unfortunately, all these procedures are practically found to be slow and stressful to Clarias batrachus, including the popular caudal vein approach, likely due to the small size of caudal veins relative to the size of the species. In line with the universal ethical recommendations for taking blood from small research animals, we propose an alternative one-operator approach for C. batrachus that is simple, rapid and without the need to sacrifice the fish as with other methods. This procedure targets the dorsal aorta (a relatively larger blood vessel) in a sedated fish, punctured by inserting a needle directly from the anterior part of the anal fin about 2-5 mm behind the genital papilla, to draw the desired amount of blood. The technique is a one-operator procedure not requiring the help of an assistant or any special equipment to restrain the fish. The operation of the protocol is unique since it permits the continuous collection of blood from the same experimental fish over a varied time course and reduces the need for a large number of replicate animals. The advantages of the proposed protocol are also highlighted and discussed in detail.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-04-05
    Description: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of collector materials and position on Pinctada margaritifera spat attachment. Settlement on polyethylene pipes (54.6%) was significantly higher (P 〈 0.05) than on plastic baskets (25%). Significantly higher (P 〈 0.05) spat catch was recorded from the collectors which were installed on lower height of settlement tank than upper. The number of dead spat after settlement on pipe (1.4%) and basket (1.5%) were not significantly different (P 〉 0.05). Possible factors causing the pattern of settlement reveals that it could be related to the material used in collector, reaction to light and gravity force. These results indicated that polyethylene pipes positioned horizontally in the third bottom part of the tank are suitable for the settlement of P. margaritifera pediveliger larvae in a hatchery and may also be suitable for grow out in the ocean.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: The visceral storage fat and liver of patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) are normally discarded, which incurs cost and can cause environmental pollution. However, these may be potential sources to extract fish oil. The proximate and fatty acid compositions of liver and fatty tissue of patin catfish were investigated to evaluate the suitability of these by-products for extracting fish oil. Fat was extracted using a low temperature solvent extraction method. The average fat content of fatty tissue and liver of females were 77.64 and 11.71%, respectively, whereas in males this was 73.23 and 9.59%, respectively. Fatty acids found in the extracted oil of these byproducts were C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C18:4, C20:0, C20:1, C20:4, C20:5, and C22:6. The major fatty acids presented in these tissues were palmitic (C16:0), oleic (C18:1 n-9), and linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6). The total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids of liver from male and female patin catfish were 13.31 and 13.30%, respectively, whereas in the fatty tissue these were 11.64 and 12.09%, respectively. The n-3 to n-6 ratios of liver and fatty tissue of females were 1.61 and 0.95, respectively, whereas in male fish these were 1.31 and 1.05, respectively. Results of this study indicated that the liver and fatty tissues of patin catfish are suitable sources of fish oil specifically due to the presence of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
    Keywords: Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-22
    Description: In this study, oil was extracted from the liver and visceral fat of Patin (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and refined. The yield of oil after refining was 49.98%. The major yield loss (34.20%) happened during the degumming procedure. Fatty acids found in the crude and refined oil were C12:0, C14:0, C14:1, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C18:4, C20:0, C20:1, C20:4, C20:5, and C22:6. The dominant saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 n-9, and C18:2 n-6, respectively. The total amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids did not change significantly during refining procedure (p〉0.05), whereas the total amount of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids changed significantly (p〈0.05). The n-3 to n-6 ratios of crude, degummed, neutralized, bleached, and deodorized oils were 1.11, 1.06, 1.05, 1.02, and 1.01, respectively.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-07-21
    Description: Neogobius caspius is an endemic fish species in the Caspian Sea belonging to the family Gobiidae that ecologically play important role as a predator fish in the food chain .The main objective of this research was determination of some reproductive properties of N. caspius in the southwest coasts of the Caspian Sea. Sampling was carried out with a bottom trawler in three stations (Astara, Anzali and Chabuksar) from October 2004 until September 2005. The species was identified based on meristic parameters. The maximum gonadosomatic index (GSI) was recorded at 7.52% for male and 100.12% for female fish in June. A sharp decrease in GSI value from June to the end of September in both sexes was observed and we found that the spawning of the species takes place several times each year. Hence, the species is considered a late spawner. Female to male sex ratio was 1.47:1. Absolute fecundity was in the range 212-1234 eggs and the relative fecundity fluctuated between 18.73 and 29.89 eggs per each gram of the body weight. The correlation between absolute and relative fecundity with age was positive and with total length and full weight was negative. Egg diameter was in the range 0.06 to 0.23mm. The correlation between egg diameter, age and total length was positive.
    Keywords: Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-06
    Description: Hand cream is used for rehydrating and improving skin properties. The skin is the first point of contact with the environment. Thus having healthy skin with proper barrier properties is quite important. The beneficial effects of fish oil on skin make it a favorable ingredient to be used in hand care products. In the present study, the efficacy and stability of various hand cream formulations using 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% of fish oil were investigated and compared. The appearance, odor, texture, and pH of formulations containing 1 and 2.5% of fish oil remained stable in very good qualities during the storage, whereas the related values to the appearance and texture of formulation containing 5.0% of fish oil at the end of 6 months of storage at 45°C were significantly (p〈0.05) lower than other formulations and previous evaluations of this formulation. Weight loss was not observed in all formulations under study.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: A study was conducted to appraise the effect of different stocking densities on three male morphotypes named blue claw (BC), orange claw (OC) and small male (SM) at harvest in all-male culture and to assess the growth performance of BC, OC and SM in each isolated culture. Trials involving three stocking densities of all-male prawn viz., 20, 30 and 40 juvenile m^-2 were carried out in replicates. After 4 months of culture, BC, OC and SM were sorted from all tanks and restocked at 5 m^-2 in treatments BC, OC and SM respectively for 80 days. A difference in prawn density significantly (p〈0.05) affected adversely on morphotypes. The highest survival rate combined with good yield performance was from 20 juvenile m^-2 stocking density with 21% BC, 62.5% OC and 16.5% SM, respectively. In isolation culture, the average specific growth rate of the SM population (1.22) was significantly higher than that of the OC (1.01) and the BC (0.43) population. The survival of the SM population was 100% while for others it was 72%. Absolute weight of prawn was significantly greater in the male OC (23.87 g) than the SM (19.57 g) and the BC males (6.31 g). Impacts of isolated culture on population structure were much more pronounced in the SM population than others.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Biology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-27
    Description: Neogobius caspius is an endemic species of the Caspian Sea which plays an important role in food chain as a predatory fish. The main aim of this study was to investigate selected feeding characteristics of Neogobius caspius in the south west coasts of the Caspian Sea. Monthly sampling was carried out using a bottom trawler at three stations (Astara, Anzali and Chabuksar) in three depths (0-5, 5-10 and 10-15m) on a monthly basis from October 2004 to September 2005. Relative gut length (RLG) was less than one suggesting that this species is carnivorous. RLG was significantly lower in older fish but gut length was longer (P〈0.05). Intensity of fullness was below the favorite degree (IF〈400) from October to March, however, it was higher (400〈IF〈900) from April to October at all stations, indicating that feeding conditions for this species is suitable in the study area. Study showed that N. caspius mainly fed on molluscs (Food preference, FP=100%), worms (FP=89%) and crustaceans (FP=74%), hence, this species is considered as euryphagus species.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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