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  • 1
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0889-1605
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Lithium clearance ; furosemide ; circadian variations ; sodium ; potassium ; creatinine clearance ; electrolyte excretion ; renal tubular physiology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of chronic furosemide treatment on the circadian cycle of lithium clearance (CLLi) and electrolyte excretion has been examined in 8 young, male volunteers, by performing two 24 h clearance experiments, before and after one week of treatment with furosemide 80 mg once daily. After 8 days on furosemide there was a significant decrease in creatinine clearance (−21%), plasma Na (−8.4 mM) and plasma K (−0.58 mM). At that time, however, there were no changes in 24 h-values of CLLi or Na excretion, although the magnitude of the circadian variation in CLLi and other renal parameters was increased. Both CLLi and CLNa were increased in the first 3 h following furosemide administration and thereafter they fell below the control level in the remaining hours of the experiment. From the absolute and fractional changes in CLLi it is suggested that compensatory Na conservation in response to chronic furosemide treatment occurs between doses, and that it involves decreased output from the proximal tubules combined with increased fractional Na reabsorption in the distal nephron.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1430-3418
    Keywords: Concanavalin A receptors ; Recognition ; Chemosensory behaviour ; Tetrahymena
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between concanavalin A (ConA) receptors and the chemosensory behaviour of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila was studied using the peptide chemoattractants proteose peptone and fibroblast growth factor. Studies on the chemosensory behaviour in semisolid methylcellulose showed that 50 μg/ml ConA selectively inhibited the persistent element of swimming behaviour by reducing time runs of cells responding to proteose peptone from 12.2±4.5 min to 0.8±0.3 min. Methyl-alpha-D-mannoside, but not methyl-alpha-D-galactoside, abolished the inhibitory effect of ConA, suggesting that mannoside-containing ConA receptors are involved in maintaining a persistent swimming behaviour. Control experiments, carried out in liquids where persistent swimming is less important for cellular behaviour, showed that ConA did not affect proteose-peptone-induced chemoattraction under these conditions as measured by a two-phase assay for chemoattraction. Also, no inhibitory effect of ConA could be found on swimming rates when individual velocities of ConA-treated cells were determined. When tested in liquid chemoattraction assays, ConA was found to be a weak but significant chemoattractant. Studies of the cellular location of ConA receptors on the plasma membrane of starved cells showed an unequal distribution. A preferential clustering of receptors at the anterior end of the cell was observed when determined at high concentrations (100 μg/ml) of fluorescent ConA. Methyl-alpha-D-mannoside but not methyl-alpha-D-galactoside abolished the fluorescent ConA labelling, indicating a preferential clustering of these mannoside-containing receptors at the anterior part of the plasma membrane and cilia. At lower concentrations (25 μg/ml), FITC-ConA produced more general labelling of the entire cell membrane. The results suggest that ConA receptors are necessary for the persistent element of swimming and that binding of ConA to its receptors interferes with processes related to signal transduction rather than by limiting the free movement of cilia required for locomotion. The gradient of receptors seen at high FITC-ConA concentrations may be important for a putative spatial chemosensory mechanism, i.e. chemotaxis.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract   Reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene was studied in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Operating the reactor in batch mode the dynamic transformation of tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene and dichloroethene (DCE) was monitored. Tetrachloroethene was reductively dechlorinated to trichloroethene, which again was dechlorinated at the same rate as DCE was produced. DCE showed a lag period of 40 h before transformation was observed. During normal reactor operation trans-1,2-DCE was the major DCE isomer, followed by cis-1,2-DCE. Small amounts of 1,1-DCE but no vinyl chloride were detected. When the influent tetrachloroethene concentration was increased from 4.6 μM to 27 μM, the transformation rate increased, indicating that the system was not saturated with tetrachloroethene. The main organic component in the effluent was acetate, indicating that the aceticlastic methane-producing bacteria were inhibited by the chlorinated ethenes.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Information on temporal and spatial variation in weed seedling populations within agricultural fields is very important for weed population assessment and management. Most of all, it allows a potential reduction in herbicide use, when post-emergence herbicides are only applied to field sections with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including online weed detection using digital image analysis, computer-based decision making and global positioning systems (GPS)-controlled patch spraying. In a 4-year study, herbicide use with this map-based approach was reduced in winter cereals by 60% for herbicides against broad-leaved weeds and 90% for grass weed herbicides. In sugarbeet and maize, average savings for grass weed herbicides were 78% in maize and 36% in sugarbeet. For herbicides against broad-leaved weeds, 11% were saved in maize and 41% in sugarbeet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Weed research 42 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The spatial cross-correlation between weed species densities and six soil properties within fields was analysed using cross-semivariograms. The survey was carried out in three successive years in two fields. The most consistent relationship between weed species density (numbers m−2) and soil properties was negative cross-correlation between the density of Viola arvensis Murray and clay content. This correlation was found in both fields; however, the range of spatial dependence varied between fields. In one of the fields, the density of Lamium purpureum L. was positively cross-correlated with the phosphorus content in the soil in all years. The density of Veronica spp. and Poa annua L. was negatively cross-correlated with pH in all three years. Other spatial cross-correlations that were found in this study were inconsistent over time or field site. The densities of some of the weed species were spatially cross-correlated with more than one soil property. The results showed that the range of spatial dependence varied not only between fields, but also between weed species and soil properties, as well as between years. This study indicates that the weed pattern is field-specific and that the spatial variation in soil properties within a field is one of several factors affecting weed patchiness.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Weed research 41 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Stems of Chenopodium album. and Sinapis arvensis. and leaves of Lolium perenne. were cut with a CO2 laser or with a pair of scissors. Treatments were carried out on greenhouse-grown pot plants at three different growth stages and at two heights. Plant dry matter was measured 2 to 5 weeks after treatment. The relationship between dry weight and laser energy was analysed using a non-linear dose–response regression model. The regression parameters differed significantly between the weed species. At all growth stages and heights S. arvensis was more difficult to cut with a CO2 laser than C. album. When stems were cut below the meristems, 0.9 and 2.3 J mm−1 of CO2 laser energy dose was sufficient to reduce by 90% the biomass of C. album and S. arvensis respectively. Regrowth appeared when dicotyledonous plant stems were cut above meristems, indicating that it is important to cut close to the soil surface to obtain a significant effect. When cutting L. perenne plants with 2-true leaves at a height of 2 cm from the soil surface with a laser, the biomass decreased significantly compared with plants cut by scissors, indicating a delay in regrowth. This delay was not observed for the dicotyledonous plants nor for the other growth stages of L. perenne.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: For implementation of simple yield loss models into threshold-based weed management systems, a thorough validation is needed over a great diversity of sites. Yield losses by competition wsth Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) as a model weed, were studied in 12 experiments in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and in 11 experiments in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Most data sets were heller described by a model based on the relative leaf area of the weed than by a hyperbolic model based on weed density. This leaf area model accounted for (part of) the effect of different emerging times of the S. alba whereas the density model did not. A parameter that allows the maximum yield loss to be smaller than 100% was mostly not needed to describe the effects of weed competition. The parameter that denotes the competitiveness of the weed species with respect to the crop decreased the later the relative leaf area of the mustard was determined. This decrease could be estimated from the differences in relative growth rate of the leaf area of crop and S. alba. However, the accuracy of this estimation was poor. The parameter value of the leaf area model varied considerably between sites and years. The results strongly suggest that the predictive ability of the leaf area model needs to be improved before it can be applied in weed management systems. Such improvement would require additional information about effects of abiotic factors on plant development and morphology and the definition of a time window for predictions with an acceptable level of error.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 35 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Three years of experiments with spring barley showed significant differences in weed suppression ability among varieties. Weed dry matter in the most suppressive variety, Ida, was 48% lower than the mean weed dry matter of all varieties, whereas it was 31% higher in the least suppressive variety, Grit. Ranking varietal responses to weed competition in terms of grain yield loss corresponded well to ranking weed dry matter produced in crop weed mixtures. There was no correspondence between the varietal grain yields in pure stands and their competitiveness, suggesting that breeding to optimize both yielding and competitive ability may be possible. Non-linear regression models were fitted to canopy height and light interception data for each variety in all three years. The canopy height model provided a precise description of development and maximum canopy height of the varieties. A light interception model was developed to describe the light interception profiles of the varieties. A study of the estimated parameters showed significant correlation between weed dry matter, rate of canopy height development and the light interception profile. However, when estimates were standardized to eliminate the effect of year, there was no correlation between weed dry matter and the light interception profile parameters, indicating that varietal competitiveness was not related to this trait. A multiple regression analysis showed that a model comprising parameters of maximum canopy height, maximum light interception and temporal displacement of light interception provided a good description of the varietal differences.
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