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  • 1
    ISSN: 0019-1035
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: The Moon's polar permanent shadow regions (PSR) have long been considered the unique repository for volatile Hydrogen (H) Largely, this was due to the extreme and persistently cold environment that has been maintained over eons of lunar history. However, recent discoveries indicate that the H picture may be more complex than thc PSR hypothesis suggests. Observations by the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detect (LEND) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) indicate some H concentrations lie outside PSR. Similarly, observations from Chandraayan-l's M3 and Deep Impact's EPOXI near infra-red observations indicate diurnal cycling of volatile H in lower latitudes. These results suggest other geophysical phenomena may also play a role in the Lunar Hydrogen budget. In this presentation we review the techniques and results from the recent high latitude analysis and apply similar techniques to equatorial regions. Results from our low latitude analysis will be reported. We discuss interpretations and implications for Lunar Hydrogen studies
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Near-infrared observations of comet Levy (1900c) were made on UT 4.3 and 5.3 Sep. 1990 from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea. A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer in combination with a cooled grating spectrometer was used to make a sensitive search for fluorescent emission from the v zub 3 band of CH4 near lambda approx. 3.3 microns. If CH4 is a parent molecule released directly from the nucleus, then the 3 sigma limit on its abundance is CH4/H2O approx. less than 0.0031, assuming that the kinetic temperature of the inner coma is approx. 50 K and that the CH4 spin species are equilibrated at a temperature approx. greater than 50 K. Since International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of CO in Levy indicate that CO/H2O approx. 0.04 (Feldman et al.), researchers find that CH4/CO approx. less than 0.1. Infrared spectroscopic searches for CH4 in Comet Halley also yielded no positive detections; the more sensitive upper limit from the latter observations is CH4/H2O approx. less than 0.002. Since CO/H2O approx. 0.05 in Halley (not including the extended source of CO), the upper limits on the CH4/CO ratios are almost identical for comets Levy and Halley. A marginal infrared detection of the CH4 v sub 3 band in comet Wilson yielded CH4/H2O approx. 0.01 to 0.05 (Larson et al.), but there was no positive detection of CO. If the identification of the feature in the infrared spectrum of comet Wilson is correct, then that would indicate a very high CH4/CO ratio in this comet.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Abstracts for the International Conference on Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1991; p 233
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The vibrational and rotational excitation of the CO molecule in cometary comae were investigated using a model which includes IR vibrational pumping by the solar flux, vibrational and rotational radiative decay, and collisional coupling among rotational states. Steady state was not assumed in solving the rate equations. The evolution of a shell of CO gas was monitored as it expanded from the nucleus into the outer coma. Collisional effects were treated using a kinetic temperature profile derived from theoretical work on the coma energy balance. The kinetic temperature was assumed to be extremely cold in the inner coma; this has significant consequences for the CO excitation. If optical depth effects are ignored, only low J transitions will be significantly excited in comets observed at high spatial resolution. Ground-based observations of CO co-vibrational and rotational transitions will be extremely difficult due to lack of sensitivity and/or terrestrial absorption. However, CO should be detectable from a large comet with favorable observing geometry if the CO is a parent molecule present at the 10% level (or greater) relative to H2O. Observations using cooled, spaceborne instruments should be capable of detecting CO emission from even moderately bright comets.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA-TM-86122 , NAS 1.15:86122
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An acousto-optic spectrometer (AOS) used as an IF spectrometer to a heterodyne receiver is modeled as a total power multi-channel integrating receiver. Systematic noise contributions common to all total power, time integrating receivers, as well as noise terms unique to the use of optical elements and photo-detectors in an AOS are identified and discussed. In addition, degradation of signal-to-noise ratio of an unbalanced Dicke receiver compared to a balanced Dicke receiver is found to be due to gain calibration processing and is not an instrumental effect.
    Keywords: ACOUSTICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:85613 , NASA-TM-85613 , X-693-84-9
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Fully resolved intensity profiles of various lines in the CO2 bands at 9.4 micrometers and 10.4 micrometers were measured on Mars using an infrared heterodyne spectrometer. Analysis of the line shapes shows that the Mars atmosphere exhibits positive gain on these lines, providing the first definite detection of natural optical gain amplification and enabling identification of these lines as the first definite natural laser ever discovered.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: NASA-TM-82048
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Optics Communications 86 (1991), S. 454-460 
    ISSN: 0030-4018
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The development of sensitive heterodyne receivers (front end) in the centimeter and millimeter range, and the construction of sensitive RF spectrometers (back end) enable the spectral lines of interstellar molecules to be detected and identified. A technique was developed which combines acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam by a Bragg cell followed by detection by a sensitive array of photodetectors (thus forming an RF acousto-optic spectrometer (AOS). An AOS has wide bandwidth, large number of channels, and high resolution, and is compact, lightweight, and energy efficient. The thrust of receiver development is towards high frequency heterodyne systems, particularly in the millimeter, submillimeter, far infrared, and 10 micron spectral ranges.
    Keywords: OPTICS
    Type: NASA. Langley Research Center Opt. Inform. Process for Aerospace Appl.; p 85-91
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.
    Keywords: LASERS AND MASERS
    Type: NASA. Langley Res. Center Heterodyne Systems and Technol., Pt. 2; p 385-397
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The value of Knoop microhardness was obtained for crystals of SrF2, BaF2, NaCl and AgCl by indentation in various directions on several crystallographic planes. In all cases, the hardness is essentially dependent on the crystallographic direction along the long axis of the indentor and independent of the plane of indentation, as first reported by Garfinkle and Garlick for other cubic crystals. In addition, although the absolute value of hardness varies from one crystal to another, the hardness anisotropy was quite similar for all crystals. Since the primary slip mode is different among the crystals tested, it is concluded that hardness anisotropy cannot be used to determine the primary slip mode.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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